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> LONDON :

R. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET HILL.

THE

ANNALS OF HORTICULTURE;

^tnv=^oofi of mtovmntlon

PRACTICAL GARDENING,

FOR 1849.

LONDON: CHARLES COX, KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND.

1849.

TO

THE RIGHT HONOUKABLE

THE EARL OF AUCKLAND

KNIGHT GBAND CKOSS OF THE ORDER OF THE BATH

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF LONDON

&c. &c. &c.

THE PROMOTER OF HORTICULTURE IN BRITISH INDIA

AND ITS FRIEND AND PATRON AT HOME

'EM§ Wdmmz

IS WITH HIS LORDSHIP'S PERMISSION

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

BY HIS LORDSHIP'S

MOST OBLIGED AND DEVOTED SERVANT

THE EDITOIl.

PREFACE.

There are very few pursuits influenced by so many circumstances as Gardening; and we can imagine nothing more interesting to a lover of that healthful and delightful study than a collection of all the facts and figures that relate to it.

The raising of new varieties of Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables, the importation of Foreign Plants, the scientific discoveries, the improvements in Culture, the results of experiments, &c. are all matters of the deepest interest to the Amateur and the Professional Gardener, and indeed to all who take pleasure in, or who would keep pace with the advancement of Horticulture.

A faithful record of all these subjects, and indeed of all subjects of practical utility connected with Gardening, has been the object of this Publication; so that the "Annals of Horticulture" literally form a comprehensive History of Modern Gardening, embodying every improve- ment in the Science to the present day.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Adiantum CAPILLUS-VENERIS, 554; Agapanthus umbellatus, 65. Alibrexia rupicola, 241. AUamanda Schottii, 201. Anacharis Alsinastrum, 139, 140. Angelonia angustifolia, 411. Aquilegia vulgaris, 566, Arecha Catechu, 98. Armeria maritima, 470. Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, 555. Athyriutn Filix-femina, 551. Athyrium Filix-femina var.crispum, 552.

Bejaria ledifolia, 107. Betel-nut palm, 98. Botanical illustrations, 565. Botrychium Lunaria, 553. British ferns, 547 555.

Camellia japonica, 76. Cantua depeiidens, 277. Cattleya sphenophora, 273. Ceratostema longifiorum, 155. Child's flower-garden, 563. Chrysanthemums, 1. Clematis tuhulosa, 93. Columbine, 566. Comarum palustre, 368. Convolvulus Soldanella, 366. Coryanthes Albertina, 134. Cuckoo, the, 184. Cuscuta Epithymum, 365.

Dendrobium pulchelium, 324. Dielytra spectabilis, 385. Dipladenia nobilis, 96. Dodder, the, 365. Draining, diagrams of, 508 510.

Episcia bicolor, 467. Ericas, wild, 367. Eugenia Moritzianum, 190.

Fence, diagram of, 537. Ferns, wild, 547 555. »

Flower stands, ornamental, 456.

Flower stands, rustic, 340 344. Fountain, simple, 39. Frogbit, the, 356. Fuchsia loxensis 285. Fuchsia, diagrams of perfection, 523.

Gardenia nitida, 29.

Geometrical gardens, diagrams of,

204—206. Geraniums, 145. Gesnera libanensis, 325, Grass of Parnassus, 393. Grislea tomentosa, 496. Gutta percha tree, 73.

Heaths, wild, 367. Helianthemum polifolium, 526. Holly, the, 576. Hoya imperialis, 457. Hydrocharis Morsus-ranse, 356.

Isonandra Gutta, 73, 74. Ixia columellaris, IS.

Lathyrus odoratus, 565. Leuchtenbergia principis, 512.

Metrosideros robusta, 541. Metternichia princeps, 193. Milkwort, the, 226. Mitraria coccinea, 473. Moonwort, the, 553, Mutisia ilicifolia, 329,

Nemophila maculata, 529.

insignis, 565.

Nordmannia cordifolia, 471.

Ornamental water, diagram of con- struction, 60.

Pardanthus chinensis, 14. Parnassia paluslris, 393. Pelargoniums, 145, Pentstemon lanceolatus, 268. Plant, parts of a, 565, 566.

Pleasure ground, design for, 433. Plumbago Larpentse, 31. Polygala vulgaris, 226. Pond, section of, 60. Pyrola rotundifolia, 314.

Restrepia elegans, 251. Rhododendron barbatum, 392.

' verticillatum, 216.

Rock scenery, 361.

plants, 289.

Rose, 460.

Rural scenery, 337, 481, 482,488.

Rustic work, 338—344.

tables, 339—342.

seats, 338— 343.

flower-stands, 340 344.

Schwerinia superba, 137, Seats, rustic, 338—343. Shipwreck, 483. Solandra lavis, 88. Staking trees, 51. Stands for flowers, 456. Statices, wild, 368. Steriphoma paradoxum, 179. Summer houses, 449, 450. Sweet pea, 565.

Tables, rustic, 339—342. Thibaudia pinchinchensis var,

glabra, 36. Thrift, 368, 470. Thunbergia alata, 127. Trefoils, wild, 369. Trichomanes radicans, 550. radicans var. An-

drewsii, 547. Tropseolum umbellatum, 25

Verbena, ideal, 75.

Wahlenbergia hederacea, 286. Weed pincers, 231.

Zauschneria californica, 420.

CONTENTS.

Abies escelsa, for fences, 539.

Absinthium congestum, 295 ; A, gla- ciate, 295.

Acacias, culture of, 468.

Acacia leptoneura, 91 ; A. oncino- phylla, 137; A. ixiophylla, 196; A. viscidula, 197 j A. argyro- phylla, 370.

Acclimatizing, 542.

Achillea alpina, 293 ; A. tomen- tosa, 293 ; A. erisfata, 293 ; A. punctata, 293.

Achimenes ocellata, 159; A. rosea, var.violacea Hoordiana, 269 ; A. Candida, 524 ; A. atrosanguinea, 525 ; A. misera, 525 ; A. longi- flora, var. macrantha, 556.

Acropera Batemanni, 557.

Actinia, or sea anemone, 421.

Adonis vernalis, 293 ; A. apennina, 293; A. Hellehorus, 293.

Adyseton saxatile, 293.

^^Sginetia multiflora, 371.

Aerides odoratum, substitute for tea, 40.

j^Cthiouema membranaeeum, 293.

Agalmyla staminea, 28.

Agapanthus, culture of, Q5.

Agaric, phosphorescent, 573.

Agricultural schools, 199 ; chemis- try, 493.

Ajuga bracteosa, 293 ; A. Lax- manni, 293 ; A. integrifolia, 293.

Alchemilla alpina, 293 ; A. argentea, 293.

Alder, for fences, 539.

Alibrexia rupicola, 241 ; sugges- tions for cultivating, 242.

Allamandas, culture of, 202 ; spe- cies of, 202.

Allamanda viola cea, 94 ; A. Schot- tii, 130, 201 ; A. puberula, var. Gardner!, 158.

Alloplectus concolor, 271 ; A. eriocalyr, 271.

Allotment gardens, management of, 9.

Alnus giutinosa, for fences, 539.

Aloe, American, 120.

Alpine strawberries, culture of, as annuals, 336.

Alpine plants, 289 ; culture of, 289 ; in pots, 289; calendarial instruc- tions, 290 ; selection of, des- cribed, 292.

Alstromerias, description of, 319 ; culture of, 320.

Alstromeria aurea, 486 ; A. hae- mantha, var. Simsiana, 486 ; A. pulchella, 486 ; A. peregrin a, va"-. Errembaultii, 486 ; A. caryo- phyllaea, 489; A. Ligtii, 489; A. peregrina, 489 ; A. pelegrina, 489 ; A. peregrina, var. flore alba. 491; A. pulchra, 491 ; A. tricolor,

Astriimeria, (-continued :)

492 ; A. Flos-Martini, 492 ; A. pulchra, var. bicolor, 493 ; A. Nielliana, 493.

Alyssoides tomentosa, 312.

Alyssum saxatile, 293 ; A. deltnide- um, 296 ; A. ciliatum, 299 ; A. Besseri, 309 ; A. podoUcum, 309.

Amaryllis, culture of, 458.

Amaryllis Atamasco, 487; A.advena, 487 ; A. advena, var. cerina, 491 ; A. maranensis , 487 ; A. regincB, 487 ; A. minuta, 488 ; A. psitta- ci7ia, 489 ; A.Solandrceflora, 489 ; A. tuhispatha, 492; A. Ber- teri, 492.

Amateurs, hints to, 478.

American Aloe, 320.

Amygdalus persiea sanguinea pie- no, 371.

Anacharis Alsinastrum, 139.

Anacyclus tomentosus, 294 ; A. pu- hesceiis, 294.

Anchusa rupestris, 304 ; A, echioides, 556.

Androsace carnea, 293; A. Chamas- jasme, 293 ; A. lactea, 293 ; A, sarmentosa, 294; A. villosa, 294 ; A. villosa, 293 ; A. aciitifolia, 293; A. Lehma7iniana, 293; A. pauciflora, 294 ; A. lanuginosa, 294 ; A. incana, 294 ; A.capitata,

294 ; A. alpina, 295 ; A. ciliata,

295 : A. pubescens, 295 ; A. Are- tia, 295 ; A. diapensia, 295 ; A. helvetica, 295 ; A. Vitaliana, 295 ; A. Intea, 295 ; A.farinosa, HOT ; A. primuloides, 307.

Andryala aurea, 302.

Angelique Jamm strawberry, 288.

Angelonia birsuta, 93; A. arguta,

93 ; A. biflora, 93 ; A. bracteata,

93 ; A. angustifolia, 410 ; culture

of, 411. Anemone ranunculoides, 294 ; A. flava, 294 ; A. luiea, 294 ; A. nemo-

rosalutea, 29i; A. grcsnlandica,298. Annuals, hardy, 374. Anonymus erecta, 301. Anopterus glandulosa, 322. Antennaria dioica, 294 ; A. alpina,

294. Anthemis tomentosa, 294 ; A. pu- bescens, 294. Anthyllis erinacea, 294 ; A. mon-

tana, 294. Antiaris toxicaria, the poison tree, '

233. Antiphylla coerulea, 309. Antirrhinum Asarina, 294; A. al-

pinum, 303 ] A. pubescens, 303 ;

A. snpinum, 303 ; A. iriste, 303 ;

A. aruginetcm , 303. Apargia aurea, 302; A. alpina, 303 ;

A. pyrenaica, 303.

Aphelandra longiscapa, 322.

Aphides, to destroy, 43.

Aphorisms, garden, 478.

Apple trees, standard, training, 240 ; in pots, 381 ; for fences, 539.

Apples, the best, 188.

April, gardening memoranda for, 189.

Aquilegia alpina, 294 ; A. cana- densis, 294 ; A. elegans, 294 ; A. variegata, 294 ; A. leptoceras, 294; A. glandulosa, 488.

Arabis albida, 295 ; A. undulata, 295 ; A. caitcasica, 295 ; A. lep- tocarpiBa, 295.

Arboretum, formation of, 55 ; trees and shrubs for, 55.

Architecture, garden, 449.

Areca Catechu, 99.

Arenaria balearica, 295 ; A. nuiscc- ides, 295.

Aretia alpina, 295 ; A. Halleri, 293; A. ciliata, 295 ; A. pubescens, 295 ; A. helvetica, 295 ; A. bry- oides, 295; A. Vitaliana, 295; A. rugosa, 295.

Argemone mexicana, medical pro- perties of, 570.

Arisaema Murrayi, 424.

Aristolochia aiiguicida, 157.

Armeria alpina, 295 ; A. maritima, 470.

Arnebia echioides, 556.

Arnica BelUdiastrum, 296.

Arpophyllum giganteum, 272.

Artemisia glacialis, 295.

Arthrostemma fragile, 90.

Athyrium Filix-femina, and its varieties, 550.

Arum Murrayi, 424.

Asarina cordifolia, 294 ; A. proctim-

bens, 294. Asarum virginicum, 295. Asparagus, wild, 368 ; blanching,

476. Asperula alpina, 295; A. cynanchica,

295 ; A. ciliata, 298. Aster alpinus, 295 ; A. hirsutus,

295 ; A. obovatus, 295 ; A. BelU- diastrum, 296.

Asteroccphalus Columbaria, 309. Astragalus leontinus, 296 ; A. Tra- gacantha, 296 ; A. massiliensis,

296 ; A. aristatus, 296; A.nralen- sis, 296 ; A. velutinus, 296 ; A. alpinus, 305 ; A. minimus, 305 ; A. montanus, 305.

Astrantia minor, 296 ; A. digilata,

296 ; A. Epipactis, 301. Auriculas, the best varieties, 23. Auricula ursi, 307. Aubretia deltoidea, 296 ; A, flori

bunda, 296. Autumn radishes, 418. d

CONTENTS.

Azalea indica, the best varieties,

24 ; culture of, 44, •532. Azalea procumbeiis, 296.

Batiana, culture of, 14 ; descriptive

list of, 19. Ballota pseudo-dictamnus, 296. Balsam, cultivation of, 275 ; pro- perties of, 275. Banksias, culture of, 447. Banyan tree, habit of, 336. Barha-jovis montana, 294. Barberry, for fences, 540. Barkeria Skinneri, var. major, 28. Bartsla pallida, 297. Baskets for flowers on lawns, 376. Bastard iron-wood of New Zealand,

270. Batscliia canescens, 425 ; B. conspi-

cua, 425. Beans, culture of, 166, Bee-keeping, 176. Ikecli, for fences, 538. Bret, culture of, 165. Bejaria ledifolia, 107 ; B. sestuans,

158, 315; B. coarctata, 197; B.

cinnamomea, 197. Bellidiastrum Michelii, 296 ; B.

montanum, 296. Bellis sylvestris, 296. Bellium minutum, 296. Berberis, evergreen species, their

management, 318; B. vulgaris

for fenceSj 540. Beri7igeria pseudo-dictamnus, 296. Bernoullia montana, 310. Betel-nut palm, 99. Black Prince Hamburgh grape, 527. Blue -bell, poetical associations, 517. Blussard Noir grape, 527. Bolbophyllum hirtum, 27. Borneo, vegetation of, 233. Botanical distinctions, 431. Botanical Magazine, new series,

review of, 232 ; new plants pub- lished in, in 1845, 232; in 1846,

232 ; in 1847, 233. Botany of the Lizard, 361. Bouquets, Italian, 500. Bouvardia Cavanillesii, 371; B.

multiflora, 371. Bowmannia speciosa, 91. Box edgings, 397. Box thorn for fences, 538. Bracken, uses of, 553. Brazil, vegetation of. 111, 568. Bristle fern, 549. British ferns, 547 ; Handbook of,

review of, 548. British orchids, 128. Browallia speciosa, 26. Buckthorn for fences, 540. Budding rose stocks, 419; different

kinds on one stock, 474. Buildings, rustic, 337. Burlingtonia fragrans. 271. Burtonia pulchella, 425 ; B. villosa,

555. Buy nothing in a hurry, 373.

Cabbage palm, 384.

Cabbage root maggot, 43. «

Cabbage tribe, culture of, 164 ;

saving for seed, 476 ; rearing

from sprouts, 476. Cacti, culture of, 513. Calamintha rupeslria, 308 ; C. tliy-

mi/olia, 308.

Calceolarias, the best varieties, 24 ;

culture of, 533. Calceolaria Fothergillii, 296. California, vegetation of, 344 ; new

plants from, 355. Callianthemum coriandrifoUum, 308 ;

C. riittjB folium, 308. Calliopia aurea, 302. Camellias, the best varieties, 24;

culture of, 76, 532 ; treatment of

young plants, 76 ; inarching, 78 ;

grafting, 78 ; cuttings, 79 ; treat- ment of lai ge plants, 80 ; the

camellia house, 81 ; calendarial

directions, 82 ; properties of, 86 ;

select varieties, 86. Camelliajaponica, var. Storeyi, 195;

var. Leda alba, 269 ; var. cary-

ophylloides, 270. Campanula caespitosa, 296 ; C. y/n-

iirrhinum, 297 ; C. Bellardi, 297

C. pumila, 297; C. uniflora, 297

C. fragilis, 297 ; C. Cavolini, 297

C. cochlearifolia, 297 ; C. crassi- folia, 297 ; C. pulla, 297 ; C. gar-

ganica, 297; C. Elatine, 297;

C. graminifolia, 313. Cantua dependens, 271, 277; C.

tomentosa, 271 ; C. buxifolia, 271 ;

C, pyrifolia, 27 1 ; C. peruviana,

271 ; C loxensis, 271 ; C.flexuosa,

271 ; C. Ucolor, 278. Capnoides nohiUs, 298. Capnorchis spectabilis, 299. Capsicums and Chilies, culture of,

425. Cardamine trifolia, 297. Carnations, the best varieties, 23. Carrot, culture of, 165. Caryophyllata montana, 310. Caryophyllus deltoideus, 299 ; C.

superbus, 299. Casselia integrifolia, 239. Castille japallida, 297 ; C, septen-

trionalis, 297. Caterpillars on Gooseberry bushes,

to destroy, 240. Cattleya sphenophora, 270, 273 ;

culture of, 274 ; C. lobata, 372. Cauliflower plants, protecting, 333. Cedronella cordata, 297. Ccrastium tomentosum, 297 ; C.

ColumneB, 297. Ceratostema longiflorum, 137, 155. Cerbera Tanghien, 443. Cereus, culture of, 534. Cerinthe alpina, 297 ; C. maculata,

297 ; C. orientalis, 305. Chasnestes lanceolata, 26. Chaixia Myconi, 308. Chamacistus serpilUfolius, 296. Chamaledon procumbens, 296. Cheiranthus alpinus, 297 ; C. mollis,

295; C. ochroleucus, 297 ; C. de-

cumbens, 297 ; C. dubius, 297. Chemistry, a few remarks on, 394 ;

agricultural and horticultural,

493. Chilies, culture of, 425. Chimaphila maculata, 297 ; C. um-

bellata, 297 ; C. conjmbosa, 298. Chirita Moonii, 555. Chondrosea pyramidalis, 309. Chlorasa fimbiiata, 372. Chorisia speciosa, 94. Chorozema, culture of, 421, 533 ;

the best kinds, 421.

Chresta sphserocephala, ^Z ; C. pycnocephala, 94.

Chrysa borealis, 298.

Chrysanthemums, culture of, 1 ; as herbaceous plants, 2 ; as, dwarf plants in borders, 2 ; in pots as dwarf flowering plants, 3 ; dwarf- ing large specimens, 4 ; showing cut blooms, 5 ; properties, 6 ; a few of the best sorts, 6 ; calen- darial instructions, 7 ; the best varieties, 24 ; Mr. Munro's me- thod of cultivating, 239.

Chrysanthemum alpinum, 308.

Chrysion biflorum, 312.

Cinerarias, the best varieties, 24 j culture of, 533.

Cineraria populifolia, 490.

Cilharexylon perforatum, 270.

Citrus japonica, 371.

Claytoiiia virgiiiica, 298.

Clematis tubulosa, 92 ; C. indivisa, var. lobata, 525 ; C. integrifolia^ 525.

Clerodendron scandens, 136; C. cjpitat'im, 137; C. Bethunea- num, 237.

Clusia fragrans, 92.

Cochlearia grsenlandica, 298 ; C. acaulis, 303 ; C. pusilla, 303.

Coelogyne brunnea, 137.

Colonization, remarks on, 390.

Columbaria rubella, 309.

Colutea astragalina, 305.

Commercial productions ofBorneOy 234.

Comrnilobium polygalaEflorum,94 ; medical properties of, 571.

Compte de Paris strawberry, 288.

Coniferous trees, 33.

Conradia floribunda, 322.

Conservatory, temperature of: Janu- ary, 25 ; February, 87 ; March, 119; April, 190; May, 204; June, 275; July, 318; August, 358 ; September, 393 ; October, 456 ; November, 506 ; December, 541.

Continental Gardens, 497.

Convallaria bifolia, 298 ; C. quad- rifida, 298.

Convolvulus Soldanella, 366.

Coptis trifolia, 298.

Coris monspeliensis, 298.

Cornus canadensis, 298.

Corrigiola littoralis, 365.

Cortusa Matthioli, 298.

Corj'anthes Fieldingii, 89 ; C. AI- bertinse, 134, 157 ; culture of, 135; C. maculata, 492.

Corydalis nobilis, 298 ; C. specta- bilis, 299.

Corynocarpus laevigata, 322.

Cottage gardening, 162; calen- darial instructions, 168.

Cotyledon rupestris, 312; C.um- bilicata, 312.

Crassula, culture of, 534.

Crassula lactea, 487.

Crepis aurea, 302.

Crucianella stylosa, 298.

Cucubalus acaulis, SIO ; C.muscosus, 310; C. Saxifragus, 310.

Cucumbers, frame open air, 377 ; impregnation of, 477.

Cuckoo, description of, 184.

Cumbula, 472.

CONTENTS.

Cunila capitata, 313. Cuphea silenoid.es, 195. Curiosities of Vegetable Kingdom,

443. Cixscuta californica, 195 ; C. Epi-

thymum, 365. Cyclamen Coum, 298 ; C, neapoli-

tanutn, 298 ; C. Iiederesfolium,

298 ; C. autumnale, 298 ; C. europaum, 298.

Cydonia japonica, 383. Cymbidium eburneum, 28. Cypella, culture of, 14 ; description

of, 20. Cypripedium Lowei, 28. Cyrtandra staini7iea, 29. Cyrtantlius striatus, 488 ; C. an-

gustifolius, 488. Cytisus racemosus, 491.

Dahlia, and its progress, 12; new flowers of 1847, 13; the best varieties, 23 ; estimate of best varieties, 358 ;

Daisy, garden, culture of, 320 ; poetic associations, 515.

Dammar, 233.

Daphne Fortuni, 48 ; D. indica odorata, culture of, 67.

Day in the woods, 252.

Deep planting, effects of, 191.

Dendrobium tortile, 28.

Dianthus alpinus, 298 ; D. deltoi- deus, 299 ; D. crenatus, 299 ; Z). supwu.t, 299 ; D. superbus, 299; D. fimbriatus, 299 ; D.mul- tifidus, 299 ; D. plumarius, 299.

Diapensia lapponica, 299 ; D. hel- vetica, 295 ; D. obtusifolia, 299.

Didymocarpus Rexii, 108.

Dieiytra spectabilis, 299, 385.

Digitalis minor, 299.

Dipladenia nobilis, 28 ; culture of, 95 ; D. tenuifolia, 94.

Dondia Epipactis, 301.

Doronicum Bellidiastrum, 296.

Double Stocks, 377.

Draba aizoides, 299 ; D. alpina, 299, 302; D. ciliaris, 299; D. monlana, 299 ; D. uraleiisia, 309.

Dracocephalum altaiense, 299 ; D. cordatum, 297 ; D. grandiflorum,

299 ; D. botry aides, 299. Draining, 506; depth of drains,

507 ; arrangement, 508 ; pro- cess, 508 ; materials for, 509 ; tools required, 511.

Drain tiles, 509.

Dryas octopetala, 299.

Drypis spinosa, 299.

Duranta Fischeri, 269.

Echinocactus chloropthalmus, 271.

Echioides paluitris, 304.

Echium Mertensii, 299 ; E albi- cans, 299.

Edgings, box, 397.

Edraiantlius graminifollus, 3 1 3.

Elder for fences, 540,

Elementary substances of vege- tables, 394.

Emigration, remarks on, 390.

Empetrum nigrum, 299.

Epacris, culture of, 533.

Epacris WiJlmoreana, 197; E. im- pressa, 486.

Epidendrum urabellatum, 490 ; E.

difforvie, 490 ; E. corymbosum, 490; E. nutans, 492.

Epimedium macranthum, 300 ; E.' violaceum, 300 ; E. grandi- florum, 300 ; E. colchicum, 27.

Epiphyllum, culture of, 534.

Episcia bicolor, 425, 467, culture of, 468.

Equisetums, gigantic, 574.

Eranthemum coccineum, 322,

Eranthis sibiricus, 300.

Eria leucostachya, 90.

Erica, culture of, 533.

Ericacetum, formation of, 53,

Ericala alpina, 301 ; E. verna, 301.

Ericas, at the Lizard, 366.

Erigeron alpinum, 300.

Krinus alpinus, 300 ; E. hispanicus, 300.

Eriostemon neriifolium, 269.

Eritrichium nanum, 304 ; E. rupes- tre, 304.

Erpetion reniformis, 300 ; E. he- deracea, 300.

Eryngium maritimum, 366.

Erysimum ochroleucum, 297.

Erytliorhixa rotiindifoUa, 300.

Esculents of Van Diemen's Land, 446.

Estates, dilapidated, 464.

Estates,rural, improvements of, 433.

Eugenia Moritziana, 159, 190.

Euonymus fimbriatus, 269.

Every Man his own Gardener, re- view of, 185.

Euphorbia veneta, 300 ; E. jacqui- niasfolia, 379.

Eurythalia sepiemfida, 301.

Evening primrose, poetic associa- tions, 519.

Evergreens, advantage of planting, 372.

Exacum tetragonum, var.bicolor,26.

Fagus sylvatica for fences, 538,

Farsetia deltoidea, 296,

February, gardening memoranda for, 87.

Fecundation of vegetables, 41.

Ferns, British, Handbook of, re- view of, 548,

Ferns, hardy, culture of, 547 ; select, 555,

Ficus indica, 336,

Field flowers, poetical associations, 516,

Fig-trees, management in the open air, 238,

Floriculture, interests of, 414 ; pro- gress of, 544,

Florist's flowers, the best varieties of, 23 ; review of the past and present condition of, as to their ideal properties, 242,

Flower-garden, the lady's, 374,

Flower-garden of the ])oets, 514, 558; daisy, 515; snow- drop, 515 ; primrose, 516 ; heath, 516 ; lily of the valley, 516; tulip, 517; fleld flowers, 517; blue-bell, 517 ; forget-me-not, 518; rose, 518; myrtle, 518; sunflower, 519; evening prim- rose, 519 ; harebell, 519 ; ivy, 519.

Flower-lists, select, 4oO.

Flowers of Borneo, 236.

Flower- stands, ornamental, 456.

Flowers in baskets on Tawns, 376.

Flowers, the standards of, 450.

.Food for the people, 197 ; of plants, compounds of, 394, 413.

Forcing plants, principles of, 316 ; of grapes, 413.

Forest Trees of Britain, (Johns,) re- view of, 31.

Forget-me-not, poetical associa- tions, 517.

Fountain, simple method of mak- ing, 39.

Fragaria alba, 307; F. aurea, 307.

Frankenia corymbosa, 300 ; F, re- vobita, 300.

French weed-pincers, 231,

Frogbit, culture and description of,

- 356.

Fruit, thinning of, 383.

Fruit-tree walls, cheap, 40,

Fruit trees, seedling, 43 ; forcing of, 317.

Fuchsia spectabilis, 268 ; F. lox- ensis, 285.

Fuchsias, the best varieties, 23 ; the perfection of, 523.

Fumaria nobilis, 298 ; F, saliva, 298 ; F. spectabilis, 299.

Furze, the species of, 109.

Gain de Montreuil peach, 2S8.

Galanthus plicatus for greenhouse decoration, 143,

Galax aphylla, 300 ; G. rotundifolia, 300,

Galeandra Devonlana, 486,

Garden architecture, 449 ; allot- ments, 9, 163 ; aphorisms, 478.

Garden establishments, v.ords to the owners of, 254,

Garden stakes, colour for, 42,

Gardeners, titled, 511.

Gardens, impiovement of, 433 ; continental, 497.

Gardens, suburban, 204; plants for, 207 ; calendarial instructions, 214 ; geometrical, 204 ; un- drained, 381.

Gardening, progress of, 484.

Gardening for children, 563.

Gardening for cottagers, 162 ; cal- endarial instructions, 168 ; bee- keeping, 176; poultry keeping, 177; pig-keeping, 178,

Gardening memoranda for January, 24; February, 87; March, 118; April, 189 ; May, 203 ; June, 274; July, 317; August, 357; Septetnber, 392 ; October, 455 ; November, 506 ; December, 540.

Gardenia nitida, 27, 29 ; culture of, 30.

Gardening produces pleasure, why, 400.

Gas-tar walks, 144.

Gastronema sanguineum, 524.

Geissorhiza, culture of, descriptive list of, 20.

Genera, species, and hybrids, 455.

Genista anglic;i, 300 ; G. minor, 301 ; G. bracteolata, 490.

Gentiana alpina, 301 ; G. excisa, 301 ; G. fimbriata, 301 ; G. ci- liata, 301 ; G. verna, 301, 4S7 ; G. verna, var. alba, 301 ; G. sep- temfidii, 301 , 489 ; G. asclepi idea, 490 ; G. macrophylla, 490 ; G,

CONTENTS.

Gentiana, (continued :)

acaulis, 491 ; G. saponaria, 491 ; G.septemfida, vav. punctata, 492.

Gentianella fimbriata^ 301.

Geology of the Lizard, 361.

Geometrical gardens, 204.

Geranium argenteum, 300 ; G. san- guineum, 300.

Geranium : see Pelargonium.

Gesnera triflora, 26 ; G. pardina, 91; G. breviflora, 195; G. liba- ncnsis, 322, 325.

Geum chamcBdrifoHum, 299 ; G. mon- tanum, 310.

Glechoma grandiflora, 311.

Glenny on the chrysanthemum, 1 ; camellia, 76; hollyhock, 122; pelar- gonium, 145; rhododendron, 216.

Glenny's Garden Almanac (184S), review of, 37; (1849), 575.

Globu'aria vulgaris, 301.

Gloxinia Teiclileri, 272.

GmeJina Rheedii, 472.

Gna-plialium alplnum, 294 ; G. dioi- cum, 294.

Goldfussia isophylla, 195.

Gomphrena officinalis, 94, 472.

Gooseberry, its properties, culture, and management, 180 ; prize va- rieties, ISO ; pruning, 183 ; thin- ning fruit, 183; as standard trees, 183^ raising seedlings, 183; to destroy caterpillars on, 240?

Grafting pelargoniums, S79 ; dif- ferent kinds on one stock, 474.

Granadilla, culture of, 477.

Grapes, new, 42, 527 ; mildew, 141.

Gratiola aurea, 301.

Greenhouse orchids, culture of, 278; selection of, 281.

Greenhouse, temperature of, Jan- uary, 24 ; February, 87 ; March, . 119; April, 190; May,204; June, 275; July, 3 18; August, 35 8; Sep- tember, 393 ; October, 456 ; No- vember, 506 ; December, 541.

Greenhouses, economical, 41 ; spring-flowering bulbs for, 142.

Greenhouses, management of, 530 ; soils required, 530; choice of plants, 531 ; temperature, 531 ; watering, 532 ; stages, 532; general rules, 534.

Gregoria Vitaliana, 295.

Grischowia hirta, 136.

Grislea tomentosa, 496.

Gros Groinier du Cantal grape, 527.

Guano, adulteration of, 575.

Gutta percha tiee, 73.

Gypsophila prostrata, 301 ; G. the- siifolia, 301.

Gijromia virginica, 304.

Habranthus hesperius, var. advena, - 487 ; H. hesperius, var. miniatus,

490 ; H. Bagnoldianus, 490 ; H.

hesperius, var. pallida, 491 ; H.

versicolor, 491 ; H. Andersonia-

nus, 491 ; H. robustus, 492. Hacquetia Epipactis, 301. Hakeae Victorias, 95. »

Harebell, poetical associations, 5 1 9. Hartweg's Mission to California;

344 ; new plant? obtained, 355. Hawthorn, large, 41. Heath, poetic associations, 516. Hedyotis ccerulea, 301.

Hedypnois pyrenaica, 303.

Helianthemums, culture of, 410; descriptive list of, 401 ;

Helianthemum cupreum, 301 ; H. grandiflorum, 301 ; H. polifolium, 526.

Heliotrope, to dwarf for beds, 375.

Helleborus odorus, 302 ; H. trifo- lius, 298; II. trilobus, 298; H. pumilus, 298 ; H. sibiricus, SOO.

Herbs, culture of, 167.

Hesperantha, culture of, 14; de- scriptive list of^ 20.

Hibiscus splendens, 192 ; H. Tel- fairiae, 493 ; H. ferox, 526.

Hieracium angustifolium, 302 ; H.Juricula, 302; II.glaciale,302. H. aureum, 302.

Hints to amateurs, 478.

Hippeastrum stylosum, 487 ; H.re- gium, 487 ; H. psittacinum, 489 ; H. Solandriflorum,489.

Hippion alpinum, 301 ; H. vernum, 301.

Hippocrepis helvetica, 302.

liirculus hieraciuides, 309 ; H. pro- pinquus, 309.

Hollies, planting, 143.

Hollyhock, culture of, 122 ; soil and situation, 122 ; planting, 123; blooming, 123 ; treatment after blooming, 123 ; propagation, 124; properties, 125; calendarial in- structions, 126.

Horminara pyrenaicum, 302.

Horticultural literature: Hamilton on the Pine, Vine, and Cucum- ber, 45 ; Every Lady her own Gardener, 46 ; Tlie Gooseberry Register, 46 ; The Rose Aina- teur's Guide, 46; Gardener's Monthly volume, tlie Dahlia, 47; Roberts on the Vine, 47 ; The Muck Manual, 47 ; Glenny's Properties of Flowers, 48; Moore on the Cucvimber, 132 ; Botani- cal Looker-out, 132; Companion to Gardener's Almanac, 133 The Forester, (Brown), 133 Gray's Manual of Fruits, 133 Smith on the Peach, 133. See also Reviews.

Horticultural schools, 199 ; che- mistry, 493.

Horticulture, influences of, 246.

Hosackia bicolor, 302.

Houstonia cegrulea, 301 ; //. gran- diflora, 301 ; H. Linnai, 301..

Hoya cinnamomifolia, 91 ; H. im- perialis, 457 ; H. bella, 524.

Hugelia lanata, 90.

Hutchinsia alpina, 302 : H. rotun- difolia, 302.

Hyacinths, the best varieties, 23.

Hybrid vegetables, the production

of, 334. Hybridizing, 68, 455.

Hydrocharis Morsus-ranse, 356.

Hypericum elegans, 302 ; H. anagal- lidifolium, 302 ; H. Kohlianum, 302 ; H. putchrum, 302.

Hypocyrta glabra, 91.

Iberis gibraltarica, 302 ; I. Teno- reana, 302 ; I. dentata, 302 ; /. speciosa, 302 ; /. Tenorii, 302 ; /. sepafolid, 302 ; /. pilosa, 302.

Imhuzeiro, 384.

Impatiens repens, 523.

Indian -Islands, vegetation of, 26L

lonopsidium acaule, 302.

Ipomssa hirsutissima, 94.

Isonandra Gutta, 73, 158.

Italian Bouquets, 500.

Ivy, poetical associations, 519.

Ixia and allied plants, culture of, 14 : in the greenhouse, 15 ; in frames and pits, 16 ; in protected beds, 16; raising from seeds and offsets, 17 ; select descriptive list, 18.

Ixora javanaca, 92; I. lanceolaria, 525.

Jahuticaha, 384.

January, gardening memoranda for,

24. Jasione perennis, 303 ; /. lavis, 303. Jatropha podagrica, 321. Jeffersonia diphylla, 303 ; J. Bar-

tonis, 303. Johns on the Forest Trees of Britain,

31 ; on Native Trees ; or, a Day in

the Woods, 252 ; on the Botany

and Geology of the Lizard, 361 ;

Gardening for Children, 563. Johnson's Principles of Gardening,

review of, 326. Justicia parasitica, 29 ; J. longi-

racemosa, 322. Karaka of New Zealand, 322. Keilmey era rosea, 94. KewGardensin 1837,& in 1847,100.

Lachenalias for greenhouse decora- tion, 142.

Lady Fern, 550.

Lady's flower garden, 374.

Laminaria saccharina, 422.

Landscape gardening, compendium of, 186; remarks on as regards the improvement of parks, gar- dens, and estates, 433 ; general rules, 433 ; the best trees should be saved ; 436 ; working of a ground plan, 437 ; forming roads, 438 ; planting, 440 ; the flower garden, 442 ; buildings and offices, 442.

Larch, for fences, 538.

Larix europsea, for fences, 538.

Lavanxia mutica, 305.

Lawns, formation of, 49 ; grasses for, 50 ; baskets for flowers, on, 376.

Laxmannia fasciculata, 298.

Lemon trees, culture of, GQ.

Leontodon squamosus, 303 ; L. aureus, 302 ; L. nlpinus, 303 ; L. pyrenaicus, 303.

Lepia membranacea, 293.

Lepidium alpiyium, 302; L. Halleri, 302; L. rotundifolium, 302; L. violifornie, 303.

Leptotes bicolor, 272.

Leucanihemum alpinum, 308.

Leuchtenbergiaprincipis, 472, 512 ; culture of, 513.

Lily of the valley, poetic associa- tions, 516.

Lime, use of, in a garden, 520.

Limodorum callosum, 321.

Limonium reticulatum, 311; L. sinuatum, 311.

CONTENTS.

Linaria alpina, 303 ; L. pilosa,

303 ; L. puhescems, 303 ; L.

supina, 303 ; L. tristis, 303. Linnsea borealis, 303. Linum austriacum, 303 ; L. angusti-

Jolium, 303 ; L. flavum, 303. Liparis ferruginea, 137. Liquid manure, 39. Lithospermum graminifolium, 303 ;

L.fruticosum, 304 ; L. canescens,

424 ; L. conspicuum, 425 ; L.

erectiim, 556. Lizard, the, geology and botany of,

361. Lobelia Cavanillesii, 490 ; L. per-

sicifolia, 490. Loiseleuria procumhens, 296. Lonicera angustifolia, 371. Lotus corniculatus flore-pleno, 304 ;

L. pinnatus, 302. Lupinus affinis, 524. Lychnis alpina, 304 ; L. acaulis,

310; L. alpestris, 310; L. quad-

rifida, 310; L. pusilla, Z\Q ; L.

saxifraga, 310. Lycium europseura for fences, 538. Lycopsis echioides, 556. Lycoris straminea, 90.

Madagascar, poison tree of, 443. Mahonias, selection of, 318 ; culture

of, 318. Maianthemum hifolium, 298 ; M.

Convallaria, 298 ; M. cordifulium,

298. Maid of Malines peach, 288. Mamniillaria clava, 158. Marcetia decussatn,- 487. March, gardening memoranda for,

118. Margarita Bellidiastrum, 296. Marrubium pseudo-dictamnus, 296. Martynia lanceolata, 556. Matricaria alpina, 308. Meconopsis cambrictim, 304. Medeola virginica, 304. Melastoma elseagnoides, 370. Melissa pyrenaica, 302. Melons, Persian, culture of 330. Merretia lucida, 322. Mesembryanthemums, culture of,

332. Metternichiaprinceps, 193 ; culture

of, 194. Metrosideros robusta, 523, 541. Miconia urophylla, 323. Mildew on grapes, 141. Milkwort, culture and description

of, 226. Miltonia flava, 557. Mitchellia repens, 30 1-. -Mitella diphylla, 304. Mitraria ccccinea, 425, 473 ; culture

of, 474. Mnemion calcaratum, 313. Moehringia muscosa, 304. Mcencliia aizoides, 299. Mollucella fruticosa, 296. Monardella undulata, 524. Monesis grandiflora, 304. Moon's supposed influence on

vegetation, 37. Moss, growing plants in, 474. Mountain Ash, account of the

33. M'.ilgedium macrorhizon, 30 K Mushrooms, culture of, 528.

Mutisia campanulata, 94; M. ilici- folia, 323, 327.

Myconia boraginea, 308 ; M. py- renaica, 308.

Myoporum laetum, 269.

Myosotis nana, 304 ; M. palustris,

304 ; M. rupestris, 304 ; M. pau- ciflora, 304 ; M. perennis, 304.

Myrtle, culture of, 119; poetical

associations, 518. Myrtus robusta, 523, 542.

Napoleona imperialis, 424 ; N. Heu- delotii, 424.

Natural History, instructing chil- dren in, 412.

Navarretia atractyloides, 525.

Neglected plants : Agapanthus, Q5 ; orange and lemon trees, 66 ; Daphne indica odorata, 67 ; myr- tle, 119 ; Nerium Oleander, 120.

Nemophila maculata, 523, 529 ; N. speciosa, 523, 529.

Neottia cinnabarina, 27.

Nepenthes RatHesiana, 237 ; N. Hoekeriana, 238 ; N.ampullacea, 238 ; N. laevis, 557.

Nepeta pinnatifida, 299.

Nerium Oleander, culture of, 120.

New flowers and plants, 26, 89, 136, 157, 194, 268, 321, 369, 424, 472, 523, 555.

New grapes, 42, 527 : Sahibee, 527 ; Olwer, 527 ; Reeve's Muscadine, 527 ; Gros Gromier dn Cantal, 527; Blussard Noir, 527 ; Ver- dal, 527 ; Nice Black Cluster, 527 ; Williams' seedling, 527 ; Black Prince Hamburgh, 527.

New Holland, climate of, 557.

New peaches : Maid of Malines, 288 ; Queen of Orchards, 288 ; Gain de Montreuil, 288.

New plants from Calilornia, 355.

Newstrawberries: Comptede Paris, 288 ; Princesse Royale, 288 ; An- gelique Jamin, 288.

Nice Black Cluster grape, 527.

Nordmannia cordifolia, 371, 471.

Nymphaea rubra, 333.

Odontoglossum Rossii, 4S8. CEnothern acaulis, 304 ; (E. ta- raxacifolia, 305 ; (E. anisoloba,

305 ; ffi. grandiflora, 305 ; Q2. missourieusis, 305 ; CE. macro- carpa, 305.

OidiumTuckeri, 142.

Olvver grape, 527.

Oncidium curturn, 27 ; O.amictum, 27 ; O. tenue, 90 ; O. Pinelli- anum, 90 ; O. phymatochilum, 197 ; O. luridum, var. purpu- ratum, 197 ; O. Geertianum, 269.

Onion, culture of, 163.

Onopordon Acanthium, 357.

Onosma orientalis, 305 ; O. stellu- lata, 305 ; 0. montana, 305 ; 0. taurica, 305.

Orange trees, culture of, 66 ; Ota- heite, 144.

Orchids, British, culture and de- scription of, 128.

Orchids for house decoration, 324.

Orchid house, temperature of, Janu-

ary, 25 ; February, 87 ; March, 119; April, 190; May, 204; June, 275 ; July, 318 ; August, 358 ; September, 393 ; October, 456 ; November, 506 ; Decem- ber, 541.

OrganMountains,vegetationof,114.

Ornamental woods of Borneo, 235.

Ornamental plantations, 51 ; water, 59 ; plants not introduced, 93 ; flower stands, 456.

Ornaments, rustic, 337.

Orovtium Asarina, 294.

Orothamnus Zeyheri, 158.

Otaheite orange, 144.

Oxalis Acetosella, 225 ; properties of, 225; culture of, 226; O. violacea, 305.

Oxypetalum solanoides, 196.

Oxytropis uralensis, 296.

Padua, Botanic garden of, 497. Peeonia Moutan, var. atropurpxirea,

371 ; P. M. var. salmonea, 371 ;

P. M. globosa, 372. Palms, products of, 99 ; culture of,

Q9 ; betel-nut palm, 99. Pansies, the best varieties of, 23. Pansy and its progress, 110. Papaver alpinum, 305 ; P. cambri-

cum, 304 ; P. nudicaule, 305 ; P.

radicatum, 305. Paratoda of the Brazilians, 473. Parks, improvement of, 433. Parnassia palustris, 305, 393; cul- ture of, 394 ; P. euroj>cea, 305 ;

P. vulgaris, 305 ; P. caroliniana,

488. Parsnip, culture of, 165. Passiflora quadrangularis; culture

of, 477 ; P. amabilis, 556. Pavetta javanica, 92. Peach trees, training, 40 ; raising

new varieties of, 335. Peas, culture of, 166. Pears, the best, 188. Pelargoniums, the best varieties, 24 ;

culture of, 145,534; blooming,

148; growth of show plants, 148 ;

of large plants, 149 ; propagating,

150; properties, 151 ; calendarial

instructions, 152; useful varieties,

154; grafting, 379. PeltopJioruvi Vogelianum, 94. Penthorum sedoides, 305. Pentstemon lanceolatus, 267, 270 ;

culture of, 268; P. crassifolius,

305. Peperomia pallescens, 90. PeriiAragmos dependens, 271 ;

P.jlexuosus, 271. Periploca graca, 491. Periwinkle, gold-striped, 41. Persian melon, culture of, 330. Pe.Tvinca minor, 312; P. major,

312. Petunias, the best varieties, 24. Phiica astragalina, 305; P. minima,

305. Phaius callosus, 321. Phalsenopsis grandiflora, 92 ; P.

rosea, 557. PJdeboanthe La:cmanni, 293. Phlomis armeniaca, 305. Phlox canadensis, 305 ; P. nivalis,

305 ; P. pilosa, 306 ; P. amcena,

306 ; P. procumhens, 306 ; P,

CONTENTS.

Phlox, (continued :)

reptans, 30G ; P. obovata. 306 ; P. jjrostrata, 306 ; P. stoloni- fera, 306; P. setacea, 306; P. subulata, 306.

Phyteunia comosum, 306 ; P. liu- mile, 306 ; P. armericefolium. 306 ; P.graminifolium,oQQ ; P orbiculare, 306; P. capituliforme, 306 ; P. hemisphericwni, 306.

Picotees, the best varieties, 23.

Pirns saxatilis, 303.

Pig-keeping, 178.

Pineapples in the open ground, 40 ; large, 417.

Pinguicula alpina, 306; P. alba, 306; P.alpestris, 306; P.fla- vescens, 306 ; P. jjuipiirea, 306 ; P. grandiflora, 306; P.leptoceras,

306 ; P. vulgaris, 306.

Pinks, the best varieties. 23 ; to propagate, 42.

Pinus Benthamiana, 40, 349 ; P. sylvestris, for fences, 537.

Pitcher plants of Borneo, 237.

Pitombiera, 384.

Plant, the parts of a, 5^Q.

Planting, deep and shallow, 191,

Pleasure gardens, formation of, 49.

Plumbago Larpentse, 30 ; culture of, 31.

Plumieria rubra, 492.

Pneumonanthe sejytemjida, 301.

Podophyllum diphyllum, 303.

Poets, flower garden of the, 514, 558.

Poiretia erecta, 301.

Polemonium pulcherrimum, 306 ; P. reptans, 306.

Polium pyrenaicum, 311.

Polyanthuses, the best varieties, 23 ; mode of showing, 373.

Polygala vulgaris, 226 ; proposed . improvement of, 227 ; culture of, 228 ; P. Chamaebuxus, 306.

Polygonum viviparum, 307.

Poor lands, pknting of, 382.

Poplar, Lombardy, for fences, 538,

Popularity of flowers, 41.

Populus fastigiata for fences, 538.

Portulaca Thellusonii, 487 ; P. grandiflora rutila, 487.

Potato disease, extent of, 399.

Potatoes, raising from cuttings, 144 ; planting, 159 ; best flavoured and most productive kinds, 162 ; cul- ture of, 163 ; advantages of plant- ing whole sets, 417; quality of, how affected, 475.

Potentilla alba, 307 ; P. Clusiana, 307 ; P. cordata, 307 ; P. nitida,

307 ; P. aurea, 307 ; P. Halleri, 307 ; P. maculata, 307 ; P. crocea, 307 ; P. alp>estris, 307 ; P. affinis, 307 ; P. dubia, 307; P. 2yi/renaica, 307 ; P. salisbur- gensis, 307; P.filiformis, 307 ; P. verna, 307 ; P. procumbens, 310.

Potted apple trees, 381.

Poultry keeping, 177.

Prepusa connata, 92. >

Primrose, poetic associations, 516.

Primula Stuartii, 157; P. lactea, 294 ; P. villosa, 294 ; P. Vital- iana, 295 ; P. auricula, 307 ; P. lutea, 307 ; P. cortusoides, 307 ; P. farinosa, 307 ; P. denti-

culata, 307 ; P. nivalis, 307 ; P. algida, 307 ; P. orientalis, 307; P. speciosa, 307 ; P. Palinuri, 307.

Princesse Royale strawberry, 288.

Principles of gardening, review of, 326.

Properties of the chrysanthemum, 6; camellia, 86; hollyhock, 125; pelargonium, 151; rhododendron, 223 ; balsam, 275.

Prunella grandiflora, 307 ; P. spe- ciosa, 307; P. laciniata, 307; P. hyssopifolia, 307 ; P. Web- biana, 196.

Prunus spinosa for fenceS) 539.

Ptarmica alpina, 293.

Pteris aquilina, uses of, 553.

Puimonaria suffruticosa, 304.

Pyrethrura alpinum, 307 ; P. saxa- tile, 308.

Pyrola asarifolia, 308 ; P. macu- lata, 297 ; P. umbellata, 298 ; P. urceolata, 300 ; P. uniflora, 304; P. chlorantJia, 308; P. rotundifolia, 308 ; P. America?m, 308 ; P. dedinata, 308 ; P. gran- diflora, 308 ; P. major, 308 ; British species of, 313; culture of, 314.

Pyrus japonica, 383 ; P. Malus for fences, 519.

Queen of Orchards