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Cornell University Library

The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924000537732

Cyclopedia of American horticulture

^jrt^^^

Plate X. Prominent American Horticulturists.

Cyclopedia of American Horticulture

COMPRISING SUGGESTIONS FOR CULTIVATION OF HORTI- CULTURAL PLANTS, DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SPECIES OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES, FLOWERS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS SOLD IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, TOGETHER WITH GEOGRAPHICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

BY

L. H. BAILEY

Professor of Horticulture in Cornell University

ASSISTED BY

WILHELM MILLER, Ph.D.

Associate Editor

AND MANY EXPERT CULTIVATORS AND BOTANISTS

JllusJttatcli toit^ obet 'W-'tDO 1l^o\i0sint} jaDriffinal dmtatinss

In Four Volumes E-M

THE MAC MILL AN COMPANY

LONDON: JIACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.

1901

The rights of reproduction and of translation are strictly reserved

Copyright, 1900, By the MACMILLAN COMPANY

-^ // 3, a / Y

S©ount ©Irasant ©rintcrg

J. Horace McFatland Company JIarrijburg, Pa.

COLLABORATORS

I. PABTIAL Ll.sr (IF COXTUIBrrOUS TU THE rrCLOl'EIlIA

The asterisk ih'sigtiates the runlrtljutors to the second enl proofs and in 'itiiei- lea'js.

Adams, Geo. E., Afjst. Hortieulturist, R. I. Exp. yta., Kingston, K.I. [IHioiJc I.ilaiiil.)

*Ames, Oakes, Asst. I)ir. Botanic Garden, and Instructor in Botany in liarvai'd Univ., Cam- bridge, Mass. (Several, genera of Orcliitls.)

*Archdeacon & Co., Commission merchants. New York, N. Y. {Miishrootti .) Arnold, Jr., Geo., Florist, Rochester, N. Y.

{China J.ster.) ArtiiuDx, Brof. J. C, Bnrduo Univ., Lafayette, Ind. ( rinjsiolof/ii of Fhiiits-.)

*Atkins()M, Geo. F., Frot'. of Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, K. Y. ( Miisliroom.) Balmer, Prof. J. A., Horticulturist, Wash. Exp. Sta., Pullman, Wash. ( Washington .)

^Barclay, P. W., Gardener, Haverford, Pa. [Ber- haeeous Perennials, Aster, Enjngiiini, etr.)

■*Barnes, Charles R., Prof, of Plant Physiology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (Fertilization. Flower.)

*Barnes, William H., Secretary Kans. Hort. Soc, Topeka, Kans. (Kansas.)

*Bayersdorfer, H., Dealer in florists' supplies, Philadelphia, Pa. (Everlasting floirers.) Beach, Prof. S. A., Horticulturist, N. Y. E.xp.

Sta., Geneva, N. Y. ((''or)i. Thinning.) Beadle, C. D. , Botanist and horticulturist, Bilt- more, N C. (Bamboo.)

*Beal, Prof. W. J., Mich. Agric. College, Agri- cultural College, Mich. (tjrtiss. Bus read ]>roofs of nianij genera 0/ grasses.) Beckert, Tfieo. F., Florist, Allegheny City, Pa. (BoiigainriUa-a . )

*BERCKltAXS, P. J., Pomologist and nurseryman, Augusta, Ga. {Laicns for the Soutli. Mag- nolia. Melitt. Miehelia. Has read proof 0/ matin groups of itnportance in the Soiifli.)

*Blair, Prof. J. C, Horticulturist, 111. Exp. Sta., <?liampaign. III. (Greenhouse Glass. FUinois.)

*Brandegee, Mrs. Katharine, Botanist, editor of Zoe, San Diego, Calif. (Matnmillaria, ilelo- eitetiis, and oilier caeti. )

^Bruckner, Xichol X., Dreer's Nursery, River- ton, N. .1. (The article " Ferns." Manij groups of tender ferns. )

Mann of II,,

also assisteii in readOiii

BuFFUii, Prof. B. C., Horticulturist, \X\o. Kxji.

Sta., Laramie, Wyo. (irijoiiiing.) ■■"BURNETTE, Prof. F. H., I-Iorti(.'ulturist, La. Exp.

Sta., Baton Kouge, La. (Lnnisinnit .) BuTZ, Prof. Geo. C, Asst. Horticulturist, Fa.

Exp. Sta., State College, Pa. {Carnation.

Fcnnsijlvaniit .) *Cajieron, Robert, Gardener, Botanic Garden of

Harvard Univ. ( J'anous arlirles and iiiueh

helji on rare jilanls. Aljiinia, Cainpaniila, Fell-

iiioeaetus, etc.) *CanniN(:, Edward J., Gardener, Smith College,

Botanic Gardens, Nortliami)ton, Mass. (Manij

artieles ami ninrli help <oi rare and dijiieult

plants. A nthuriiini , Fehiuoraet us, Kpiphijlluni ,

Glo.rinia, etr.) *Card, Prof. Fred W., Horticulturist, R. I, Exj).

Sta., Kingston, R. I. (Neliraska. Bolaui/ and

eulture of hn.'ih-fruits, as Ainclanehier, Brrheris,

Blael-berry, Buffalo Berry, Currant, Logunli, rnj .) *Clinkaberry, Henry T., tSardi-ner, Trenton,

N J. (Certain oreliids, as Livlia.) Cook, <). p., Div. of Botany, Section of Seed and

Plant Introduction, De]it. of Agric, Washing- ton, D. C. (Coffee.) CoRBETT, Prof. L. C, Horticulturist, W. Va. I^xp.

Sta., Morgantown, W. ^'a. ( IVest Virijitiiii.) "CouLSTON, Mrs. M. B., Formerly assistant editor

of Garden and Forest, Ithaca, N. Y. (Mitehellii,

and some other natire plants.) *CouLTER, John M., Professor and Head of the

Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago,

lilinois. ( Eehinoeaelus.) ""Cowen, J. II., formerly Assistant in Ilorticultur.-,

Colo. Exp. Sta., Ithaca, N. Y. (Certain CoU,-

rado plants, as Lejniehi/s, Lrur,,rrinii in .) *Craig, Prof. John, Horticulturist, la. Exp. Sta.,

Ames, la. (Canada, tioosehernj. Kale. Kolil-

rahi. ) Craig, Robert, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. (Araii-

eiiria. Anlisia. Codiaum.) *Craig, W. N., Gardener, North Easton, Mass.

(.)Iushrooni.) Crandall, Prof. C. S., Horticulturist, Colo. Exp.

Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. {Colorado.)

(V)

/6 /s

Copyright, 1900, By the MACMILLAN COMPANY

^ // 3, c /

S©ount ©Itasant ©dntctj)

J. Horace ^icF;lrland Company llarrisbiirg, Pa.

COLLABORATORS

I. PARTIAL LIST OF CdNTUlliDTOUS I'O THE CYCLOPEDIA

The asterisk designaJe.^- the proofs and in other wa!/.s.

utrihutors to the si:cond rutuioi

Adams, Gko. E,, Asst. Hoi'tieultuiist, R. I. Ex]!.

Sta., Kiugstoii, R. I. (Plioilr Island. )

*Ames, Oakes, Asst. I>ir. Botanic Garaen, ami

Instructor in Botany in Harvaj'd Univ., ('am-

bvidge, Mass. (Sererul (jencra of Orchids.)

■"'Archdeacon & Co., Commission merchants. New

York, N. Y. [Muskrooiii .) Arnold, Jr., Geo., Florist, Rochester, N. Y.

{Chitia Aster.) Arthur, Prof. J. C, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. [Physiolngij of Plants.) *Atkinson, Geo. P., Prof, of Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. { Muslironm.) Balmer, Prof. J. A., Horticulturist, Wash. Exp. Sta., Pullman, Wash. ( Was)iin(jtou.) *Barclay, F. W., Gardener, Haverford, Pa. (Her-

haceous Perennials, Aster, Eri/iKjiiim, etc.) *Barnes, Charles R., Prof, of Plant Physiology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. {Fertilisation. Floirer.) *Barnes, William H., Secretary Kans. Ilort. Soc,

Topeka, Kans. (Kansas.) *Bayersdorfer, H., Dealer in florists' supplies, Philadelphia, Pa. (Everlasting Jloiccrs.) Beach, Prof. S. A., Horticulturist, N. Y. Exp.

Sta., Geneva, N. Y. (Corn. Thinning.) Beadle, C. D., Botanist and horticulturist, Bilt- more, N C. (Bainhoo.) *Beal, Prof. W. J., Mich. Agric. College, Agri- cultural College, Mich. (Grass. Has rcml proofs of tnamj genera of grasses.) Beckert, Theo. F., Florist, Allegheny City, Pa. (PougainrilUca . ) *Berckmans, p. J., Pomologist and nurseryman, Augusta, Ga. \lAiinis for tlie Soiilh. Mag- nolia. Alelia. Mielielia. Has read pro<f of iiiantj groups of inijiortaiice in tJie Soitlh.) *Blair, Prof. J. C, Horticulturist, 111. Exp. Sta., Champaign, 111. (GreenJiouse Glass. Illinois.) *Brandegee, Mrs. Katharine, Botanist, editor of Zoe, San Diego, Calif. (Mammillaria, Melo- cactns, and oilier cacti.) *BRrcKNER, NiCHOL N., Dreer's Nursery, River- ton, N. .J. (The article " Ferns." Matiy groups of tender ferns. )

Many of tin' co,,t ribotors hore at.^o assisted in readiii:i

BuFFUM, Prof. B. C, Horticulturist, Wyo. Ex)!. Sta., Laramie, Wyo. (iryoniing.)

""BuRNETTE, Prof. F. H., Horticulturist, La. Exp. Sta., Baton Rouge, La. {Louisiana .) EuTZ, Prof. Geo. C., Asst. Horticullurist, Pa. Exp. Sta., State College, Pa. (Carnation. I'ennsylvania .)

*Cameeon, Robert, Gardener, Botanic Garden of Harvard Univ. ( Various articles and iiiiieh help on rare jihints. Alpiiiia, Camjianula , Ech- inocaetiis, etc.)

*CANNiNii, Edward .J., Gardener, Smith College, Botanic Gardens, Northampton, Mass. {Manij articles and mui-li liclii on rare and itijlicult jilaiits. A nthuriuin , EcJiinocaeliis, EjiiphiiHiiiii , Gloxinia, etc.)

*Card, Prof. Fred W., Horticulturist, M. I. Exp. Sta., Kingston, R.I. (Xelirasfa. Hotaui/ ami eidture ef hush 'fruits, as Antelanehier, lierheris, lilaeldierry, Buffalo Berry , Currant, Logaitherrij .)

*Clinkap.erry, Henry T., Gardener, Trenton, N J. (CJerlaiu orchids, as Lerdia.) Cook, O. F., Div. of Botany, Section of Seed ami Plant Introduction, Dept. of Agiac, Washing- ton, D. C. (Coffee.) CORBETT, Prof. L, C, Horticulturist, W. Va. Exp. Sta., Morganfown, W. Va. ( West Virginia.)

*CouLSTON, Jlrs. ]\I. B., Formerly assistant editor of Garden and For.'st, Ithaca, N. Y. (Milchclla, and some other natne jilants.)

*CouLTER, John M., Professor and Head of the Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. (Echinocactus.)

"CowEN, J. 11., formerly Assistant in Horticulture-, Colo. Exp. Sta., Ithaca, N. Y. (Certain Cola- rado jdaiils. as Lcpachys, Lrucneriniiin .)

*Craig, Prof. .loHN, Horticulturist, la. Exp. Sta., Ames, la. (Canada. Gooseherry. Kale. Kohl- rabi. ) Craig, Robert, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. (Araii- caria. Ardisia. Cadiieiim.)

*Craig, W. N., Gardener, North Easton, Mass. (.Uuslirooni. )

Ckandall, Prcf. C. S., Horticulturist, Colo. E.\p. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. I Colorado.)

(v)

VI

COLLABORATORS

*CusHMAN, E. H., Gladiolus specialist, Euclid, Ohio, {nladiolus.)

*Darlikgtox, H. D., Wholesale florist, specialis in heaths and hard-wooded plants. (Epacris. Leptospermum. Has read proof of iiiani/ articles on harel-tcooded pJants.)

*Davis, K. C, Science teacher, Ithaca, N. Y. (Genera in Banunculacece .)

*Davy, J. BuRTT, Asst. Botanist, Univ. of Calif. Exp. Sta., Berkeley, Calif. [Acacia. Euca- lyptus. Maytenus. Myrtacew.)

*Deane, Walter, Botanist, Camhridge, Mass. [Herbarium. Has lielped on riirivus hotanical prohlems.)

*Dewet,,Lyster J,, Div. of Botany, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. [Mentha.) DoRNER, Fred, Carnation specialist, Lafayette

Ind. [Carnation.) DoRSETT, P. H., Associate Physiologist andPatholo gist, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D.C. ( Violet.)

*DonGLAS, Thos. H., of R. Douglas & Sons, nur- serymen and specialists in conifers, Waukegan, 111. [Laru:.) Duggar, B. JI., Asst. Cryptogamie Botanist, Cor- nell Exp. Sta., Ithara, X. Y. (7'i)/,'r».)

*DusxiNG, D. M., Amateur, Auburn, N. Y. ( Grapes uvder Glu.^is.)

*DUPUY, Louis, Wholesale florist and specialist in hard-wooded plants. College Point, L. I. [Erica. Has read other articles on iieatli-like plants.) Earle, Prof. F. S., Horticulturist, Ala. Poly- technic Institute, Auburn, Ala. (Alahnma.) Earle, Parker, Horticulturist, Eoswell, N. M. (Xew Mcj-ie,,.)

*Egan, W. C, Amateur, Highland Park, 111. [Ereniurus. Has lielped on liardy jilants.) ElSELE, J. D., Foreman Dreer's Kursery, River- ton, N. J. [Cordyline.) Elliott, William H. , Florist, Brighton, Mass. [ A-tparagus pliirnosus. )

*ElIERr, S. M., Director Mont. E.Kp. Sta., Boze- man,Moiil. [Mmitinia.)

*Endicott, Joiix, Bulb-grower, Canton, Mass. [Littonia . )

*Endicott, W. E., Teacher, Canton, Mass. [Achiiii- enes. Jcidantheni. I.ria. Has made important corrections in niani/ articles on hulhs.) Evans, Walter IL, Ofdee of Exp. Stations, Dept. of Agric. , Washington, D.C. [Alaslca.)

*Fawcett, Wm., Dir. Dept. Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston, Jamaica. {Tropical fruits, as Chcrimoya, ilarmcdnde Plum, Egrj Fruit, Mango, Mangosteen, Xutnieg )

*Ferxow, Prof. B. E., Dir. College of Forestry, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Conifers. For- estry.)

FiNLAYSON, Kenneth, Gardener, Brookline, Mass. [lliiisnia.)

*Fletcher, S. W., Horticulturist, Ithaca, N. Y. [Ipomma and other Convohmlacea; . Helianthus- and related genera.)

*Franceschi, Dr. F., Manager S. Calif. Acclim<a- tizing Ass'n, Santa Barbara, Calif. [Bare plants of S. Calif., as Dasylirion, Ftacourtia, FiHiijuicra, Furcra:a, Hasardia, etc. Has read many proefs and made numerous correctio)is. )

*Galloway, B. T., Chief Div. Veg. Phys. and Path., Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. [Floricul- ture. Has read articles on fungi. )

*Gareield, C. W., Horticulturist, Grand Rapids, Mich. [Michigan.)

*Gerard, J. N., Amateur, Elizabeth, N, J. [Many articles, especially on litilbous plants, as Crocus, Iris, Mnscari, A'arcissus.)

*Gillett, Edward, Nurseryman, Southwick, Mass. [Hardy Ferns. Liparis. Has read numerous proofs on -n at ire plants.) GoFF, Prof. E. S., Horticulturist, Wis. Exp. Sta.,

Madison, Wis. ( fVisconsin.) CtOULD, H. p., Asst. Entomologist and Horticul- turist, Md. E.xp. Sta., College Park, Md. [Brussels Sprouts. Celcriac.)

*Green, Prof. S. B., Horticulturist, Minnesota Exp. Sta., St. Anthony Park, Minn. [Minnesota.)

*Grecn, Wm. J., Horticulturist, Ohio Exp. Sta., Wooster, Ohio. [Ohio. Greenhouse suh-irriga- tiirn.)

*CtREEN'lee, Miss Lennie, Bulb-grower, Gi-arden. City,N.C. [Ixia.)

*Greiner, T., Specialist in vegetables, La Salle, N. Y. ( Garden vegetables, as Articlioke, Aspara- gus, Bean, Cress, Corn Salad, Kolilrabi, Lettuce. )

*Grey, Robert M., Gardener, North Easton, Mass. [Numerous important orchid groups, as Cypripe- dium, Epidendrum, Lycaste, Maxillaria, 2Iasde- rallia.)

*Groff, II. II., Gladiolus sjiecialist, Simeoe, Out. [Gladiolus.) Gurney, James, Gardener, :\lo. Botanical Ciardeii,

St. Louis, Mo. (Cacti. ) Hale, J. H., Nurseryman and pomologist, South Glastonbury, Conn. (Ciiniu liicut.)

*Halsted, Prof. B. D., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. [Diseases. Fungus.)

*Hansen, CtEO., Landscape architect and botanist, Berkeley, Calif. [Ejiidcndrnm .) I-Iansen, Prof. N. E., Ilorticultuiist, S. Dak. Exp. Sta., Brookings, S. Dak. [.'<oulh Dakota.)

""Harris, F. L., Gardener, Wellesley, :Mass. [Lis- ianthus. Mcdinilla. ]

*Harris, W., Acting Dir., Dept. Public Gardens and Tlaiilnl ions, Kingslnn, .lanniica. (Mammcu Apple and some oilier tropieiil fruits.)

COLLABOKATOKS

Vll

*Harris, W. K., Florist, Philadelphia, Pu. {Ficits elastica. Help on Liliiim HdrriKii.)

*Hasselbring, Heinkich, Asst. in Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Iris ami mosl orvhids from Gongora to MasdevaUia.)

*Hastings, G. T., Asst. in Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaea, N. Y. [Some tropical phuils, ns Berria, BerthoUetin. A few grasses, as Uicroeliloc, Rol- ens, Sordetim.)

*HATriELD, T. 1)., Gardener, Wellesley, Mass. (Numerous and varied emitribatious, as Gesiicra, Gloxinia, LaelienaUa, Lcca, M((cro:iimia.)

*Hedrick, U. p., Asst. Prof, of Horticulture, Agri- cultural College, Mich. [Eoapnralion of Fruit.)

*Henderson & Co., Peter, Seedsmen, 37 Cort- landt St., New York, N. Y. ( Bulbs. Eccrcmo- carpus. )

*Herrington, a., Gardener, Florham Farms, Madi- son, N. J. (Chnisanthemuni eoeciiicinii . Iliilbj- jiock. )

*Hexamer, I")r. F. M., Editor American jVgricul- turist. New York, N. Y. (Scrcriil bioiiropliical sJcetclies, as Fuller, Harris.) Hicks, G. H., late of Dept. of Agric, Wasliington, D. C. (Seed-tesling.)

*PIiCKS, Henry, Nurseryman, Westport, L. I. [Li- gustruiii . )

*HiGaiNS, J. E., Horticulturist and teacher, Hono- lulu, H. I. (Hawaiian Islands. ) Hill, E. G., Florist, Bichmond, Ind. (Bcgouiu .)

*HlTCiiooCK, A. S., Prof . of Botany, Kansas State Agric. College, Manhattan, Kans. (Most nftlie genera ttf gntssrs in. the second, rolurnr.)

*HoOPES, JosiAH, Nurseryman, AVest Cliestcr, Pa. {Hedges.)

*I-l0RSF0RD, Fred. H., Nurseryman and specialist in Lilies, Charlotte, Vt. (Alpine Gardens. Lilinin. Has read proof of via.nij articles on natire jilauis. )

*HuNN, Charles E., Gardener, Cornell E.xp. Sta., Ithaca, N. Y, (Forcing of Vegetables. Mign- onette.)

*HUNTLEY, Prof. F. A., Idaho E.xp. Sta., Moscow, Idaho. [Idaho.) Hl'TCHMS, Rev. W. T., Sweet Pea specialist, In- dian Orchard, Mass. (t^weet Pen.)

*Irish, H. C, Horticulturist, Mo. Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. (Capsicum. Lactuca.) Jackson & Perkins Co., Nurserymen and spe- cialists in Clematis, Newark, N. Y. (flnn.tti.-i. )

*.Jeffers, a., Editor "Cornucopia," Norfolk, Va. (Kale.) Jordan, A. T., Asst. Horticulturist, New Bruns- wick, N. J. (Xew Jersey. )

*Kains, M. G., Div. of Botany, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Minor vegetables, as Horse- Fadish. Herhs, as Hi/ssopus ; also Ginseng and Ghjcijrrhiza.)

*Kearney, Jr., T. H., Div. of Botany, Dei.t. of Agric, Washington, I). ('. (Three orchid gi n- era, Grammangis, Granunatopliyllum, Hahina- ria.)

■'Keller, J.B., Florist, Rochester, N. Y. {Many groups of hardy herbaceous perennials. Article on. "Herbaceous Perennials.")

*Kelsey, Harlan P., Landscape architect, Boston, JIass. [Xorlli Carolina jilauts, as Galax and r.eiicothoe.) Kennedy, P. Beyeridge, Horticulturist, Nev. E.xp. Stiu, Reno, Nev. (Ma)iy genera of grasses. Begonia.)

*KERn,.I.W., Nurseryman, DeTiton, Md. (Mary- land.) KiFT, Rodert, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. (Ciit-

ftn.rers.) KiX-XEY, L. F., Horticulturist, Kingston, R. 1.

(Cetcry.) Lager & Hurrell, Orchid cultivators. Summit,

N.J. (Cattleyu.) Lake, Prof.E. B., Horticulturist, Ore. Exp. S(a., Corvallis, Ore. (Uregoii.)

*Lan'dretii, Bl'rnet, Seedsman, Philadeljihia, Pa. {Jhirid Landrctli.)

*LArMAN, (!{. N., Instrnclor in Horticulture, Cor- nell Univ., Ithaca, N. \. [Geraniitnt. lu/pa- tnir-. Pclarginiiuui.) LoNsiiALE, Edwin, Florist, <;iiestnut Hill, Phila- delphia, Pa. [Coitserralory . )

*Lo];d & Burniiam Co., Hoiticultural architeids and builders, Irviugton-on-Hudson, N. \'. (Greenhonse Construction. ) LOTiiRop & Higgins, Dahlia specialists, East Bridgewater, ilass. i Dahlia )

*MaoPhekson, James, Landscape gardener, Tren- tiin, N. J. (Enjdojrbia . Has read proof ef scr- eral oi'chid genera.)

*J[anning, J. Woodward, Horticultural expert and ])urchasing agent, Boslou, Mass. (Pyrr- Ihrnm. Hardy Itrrbs. Has rcail proof c>f uaiuy groups of herbaceous jirrenuials.)

'■Manning, Warren II., Jjinidscape architect, Boston, Mass. (Article, "Herbaceous Peren- nials.")

*Mas(>n, Prof. B.C., Berea, Ky. (Labeling. Lay- ering. )

*Massey, Prof. AV. P., Horticulturist, N. C. Exp. Sta,, Raleigh, N. C. (Figs. Xorth Carolina.) Mathews, F. Schuyler, Artist, 2 Morley St., Boston, Mass. (Color.)

*Mathews, Prof. C. AV., Horticulturist, Ky. Exp. Sta., Lexington, Ky. {Kentucky.)

'■'Mathews, AA^m., Florist ami orcliid grower, Utica, N. Y. (A'arious rare and important orchids, as Gongora, Graniinatojihyllu in , lonopsis, Linia- todrs, Miltouia.)

COLLABORATOPuS

*Maynard, Prof. S. T., Hoi-tlnillui-ist, Mass. Hatch Exp. Sta., Amhersl, Mass. (il/os.sa- chusclts. ) McDowell, Prof. R. II., Reno, Xev. (Xenvla.) McPaelaxu, J. HuKACE, Horticultural ]M'inter and expei't in photograpliy, Harrisburi;', I'a. [Border. ) *McMillen, Robert, Wholesale grower of migno- nette. Pearl River, N. Y. { MhjiionctU:.) *McWilliam, Geo., Ganlenei', Whitinsyille, Mass. (Dipludniiii. Luriiliii.) Mead, T. L., Horticulturist, (")vic.lo, Fla. [Cri- niiiii. Bii.i liclpeil in iiiaiterx i>f c.rlroiic .soiillicni Iiorticullnrc. ) *Meehan", .To.seph, Nurseryman, Germantown,

Philadelphia, Pa. {Idi'shi.) *Meredith, a. P., Gardener, South Lancaster, Mass. (Iltimca. ) Moon, Samuel C, Nni-seryman, Morrisville, Pa. ( Trees fur uniaitwHl . ) *M0REIS, O. JI., Asst. Horticulturist, Okla. Exp. Sta., Stillwater, Okla. (Indian Terrilonj. OklalioiiHi.) *Mdnson, T. v.. Nurseryman and grape hybridist,

Denison, Tex. ( Grape eulliire in tlie Sonlli.) *MUNS0N, Prof. W. M., Horticulturist, Me. Exp. Sta., Orono, Me. [Maine.) Newell, A. J., Gardener, Wellesley, Mass. ( Certain orcliids. ) ^Norton, J. B. S., Botanical Assistant, Mo. Botan- ical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. {Euphorhiacea;. Meiniliot. Several hotanieal ■pu::les, as Lithrwa.) Ogston, Colin, Gardener and orchid cultivator, Kimball Conservatories, Rochester, N. Y. {De-iuirohinm.) *Oliver, G. W., Gardener, U. S. Botanic Gardens, Washington, D. C. [Many arlieles on palms, aroids, succulents and rare plants, and inucit help on proofs. Alstra'meria . Amaryllis.) Oepet, Edward O., Gardenei', So. Lancaster, Mass. {Ma)iy ardrhs. TSonler. Cyelanien. Vianthus, and certain orchids.) "-Parsons, Jr., Samuel, Landscape architect. New York, N. y. [J.au-ir] Peacock, Lawrence K., Dahlia specialist, Atco,

N.J. (Dahlia.) Powell, Prof. G. I-Iakold, Horticulturist, Del. Exp. Sta., Newark, Del. (Clierry. Dehuriire.) Price, Prof. R. H., Horticulturist, Tex. Exp. Sta., College Station, Tex. (Tcras.) *PuRDY, Carl, Specialist in California bulbs, Ukiah, Calif. (California native plants, as Brodicca, Cnlochorlus, Erytlironinni, Fritillaria .] Rane, Prof. F. W., Plortieulturist, N. II. Exp. Sta., Durham, N. H. (New Jlanipsliii'e.) *Rawson, Grove P., Florist, Elmira, N. Y'. (Lan- /aiia. )

*Rawson, W. W., Seedsman and market- gardener,

Boston, Mass. [Cueuniher. Bettuce.) *Reasonek, E. N., Nurseryman and horticultui-ist,

Oueco, Fha. (Miiny articles, and much heli> on

e.rtrenic southern iiortieullure. Ctvsalpinia. Cocas.

(iuava. Kuniejuat. Lemon. Lime. Afango.) *Reiidek, Alfred, Si)eeialist in hardy trees

and shrubs, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (Bolany

aiol eultnre of most of the hardy trees and

.•<hruhs.) *Robeets, Prof. I. P., Dir. College of Agiac,

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y'. (Th-fvinarje. Fer-

tilily. Manure. P<dafo.) *R0LFS, Prof. P. H., Botanist, S. C. Exp. Sta.,

Clemson College, S. C. (Eiigplanl . Florida.) Rose, J. N., Asst. Curator, V. S. Nat. Herb.,

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

(Agave.) Rose, N. Jonsson, Lan<lscape Gardener to New

York City Parks, New York, N. Y'. ( Varions

erotics. ) *R0TH, FiLiBERT, Asst. Prof. of Forestry, N. Y.

State College of Forestry, Cornell Univ.,

Ithaca, N. Y. (Fagns.) *RowLEE, Prof. W. ^V., Asst. Prof, of Botany,

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y'. (Definitions. Lia-

tris. Nymphcea. Salix.) Sargent, Prof. C. S., Dir. Arnold Arboretum,

Jamaica Plain, Mass. (Ahies.) *ScOTT, Wm., Florist, Buffalo, N. \. (Important

florists' plants and floivers, as Acacia, Con-

rallaria. Cyclamen, Cytisus, Smilax, Metrosid-

eros, etc.) Scott, Wm., Gardener, Tarrytown, N. Y'. (Berlo-

lonia and other dwarf lender foliage plants.) Semple, James, Specialist in China Asters, Belle-

vue, Pa. (Aster.) *Sext()N, Joseph, Founder of the pampas grass

industry, Goleta, Calif. (Gy)ierinm .) *Si-iiNN, Charles H., Inspector of Experiment

Stations, Uniy. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif.

[California, Fig, Loganljerry, etc.) *Siiore, Robert, Gardener, Botanical Dept., Cor- nell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y'. (Various articles, as

Acalyplui, Bedding, Dichorisa)idi-a, Episcea, Fil-

tiinia, Hynieuojdiyllum. ) *Sieereciit, Henry A., Florist and nurseryman.

New Y'ork and Rose Hill Nurseries, New Ro-

chelle, N. Y. (Much help on rare greenhouse

jd((nts, juirticnlarly urciiids and pahns. Draccoia.

Ficns. Fuchsia, (larilenia. Brora. Lajuojeria.

Lanrus.) *Simonds, O. C, Supt. Graceland Cemetery, Buena

Ave., Chicago, 111. [Landscape Cemeteries.) *Slingerland, Prof. M.V., Asst. Prof. Economic

Entomology, CormOl Univ., Ithaca, N. Y'.

(Insecticides, lir^ccls.)

COIiljAP.OlfAToRS

Smith, A. W., (Josraos i-ultivator, Aiuevinis, Oa.

{Cos)ii(is.) Smith, Ei.mkr I)., Chrysanthemum siifcialist, AJi-iaii, Jlii'li. ( Clinjxdiitliviinuii. )

*Smith, Jarki) (";., l>iv. of BotaTiy, Kept, of A;,'rif., Wasbingtoii, L). ('. [Ncnrly (ill pttliiis. Vn- riou>: iji'iivni, ti.i Ciiiliinnii, Ciriislniiii, C'dh/lr- ihiii. )

*Spf.>icer, John W., Fi'iiit-e-row.-r, Westfleld, Chau- tauqua < ^o. , N, y. [dfiii^i's III IIk' Xoi-lh. Help nil iiiijinrliiiil friiils. )

*Starnes, Pi'uf. Hugh N., Hoilii-ultui-i t, Ca. Exp. St., Athens, Ga. {GeDrgia. ) Stinson, Prof. .TOHH T., Dir. Mo. l-'vuit E.\p. Sla., Mountain (.irove. Mo. (Arl:iiii.-<iis-.)

*Strong, W.m. C, Nurseryman, AVat>aii, .Mass. (h't'iirirk.)

*Taft, Prof. ]j. E., Horticulturist, Mieh. Agrie. College, Agrieultur.-il College, Jlieli. ((Irccii- hiiiise Jlcaliiiij. Jliilheili.)

*Taplik, W. II., Specialist in palms ami ferns, Holmesburg, Philadelphia, Pa. {('iillnrr of many palms, ferns anil folkujc plants.)

*Taylor, Wji. a., Asst. Pomologist, Div. of Po- mology, Dept. of Agrie., Washington, 1>. C. ( rarious articles on nuts, as lliel-orij.)

*Thilow, J. CJtto, of H. A. Dreer, Inc., Phila- delphia, Pa. (Leek. Alusknielon.)

^Thompson, C. H., formerly Asst. Botanist, Mo. Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. {Some (jenera of cacti, as Eclnnocerus, Epipjliijllnm.)

*THORBrRN & Co., J. M., Seedsmen, New York, N. Y. {Ui/acintli. Hare read niamj proofs of hulljs, annuals, reijctahles, lierhs, etc.) TiiTTMEY, Prof. J. W., Biologist, Ariz. Exp. Sta., Tucson, Ariz. (Ari-ona. Date. Opiinlia.]

*Tracy, S. M., Horticulturist, Biloxi, Jliss. (Mis- sissippi.)

*Thacy, Prof. \V. AY., Seedsman, Detroit, Jlich. (Culihaije. Lettiiee. Alichiijan .)

*Trelea.se, Dr. Wii., Dir. Mo. Botanical Garden, St. Louis, i\Io. (Certain ilesert pliinls of the till/ familij, as Aloe, Apiera, (lasteria, llairor- lliia.)

*Tri('ker, Wm., Specialist in aquatics, Dreer's Nursery, Riverton, N. J. (Aijiiarium. Most .lipiatiiv, as Liiiiiianllieiiium, Limnocliaris, Xi/iii- pluea, Xel iiiiihiiiin , Victoria, etc.)

*Troop, Prof. James, Horticulturist, Ind. Exp. Sta., Lafayette, Ind. (Indiana.)

*Tl'RNER, Wm., Gardener, Tarrytown-on-Hudson, N. Y'. (Forcing of Fruits. Mushroom.) Ti"i'TijE, H. B., Cranberry-grower, Valley Junc- tion, Wis. I^Cranherri/.)

^Unpf.R'^yood, Prof. L. M., Columbia UniYersity, New Y'ork, N. Y. {Botany of all ferns.)

Van Dejian, H. E., Pomologist, -Parksley, \a.

{ Dale. ) *Vaughan, J. ('., Seedsman and llorist, Chicago,

III. {Christmas dreens.) *\'iCK, James, Editor " \'ick's Magazine," Pochos-

ter, N. Y'. {Malrariseus. Melolhria.) *\'(iORHEES, Prof. Edwaiio B., Dir. N. J. Exp. Sta.,

New Brunswick, N. J. (Fertilisers.) Waldeon, Prof. C. P., Horticulturist. N. Dak.

Exp. Sta., Fargo, N. Dak. (yorth Dakota.) *Walker, Ernest, Horticultnrist, Ark. Exp. St.-i.,

PayetteYille, Ark. (Annuals. nasket I'lants.

Heliolriqie. JVaterinij.) *Watr(ies, C. L., Nui'seryman and piomologist,

Des Moines, la. (Joira.) ■■^Wat.son, I;. JI., Instructor in Horticulture, Bus-

sey Inst., Jamaica Plain, Jlass. (Coleliienm.

Ciittaije. Forcing Hardy Plants. House I'lants.) Watts, R. L., Horticulturist, Tenn. Exp. Sta.,

KnoxYille, Tenn. (Tennessee.) *\YAi-nK, Fro(. F. A , Hoi-ticulturist, Vt. Exp. Sta.,

Biirliiigl(jn, Vt. (Heel. Carrot. Cueuinlnr.

Creens. Lilium. J'entslemon . .Salad Plants.

\'ernionl . ) *Webber, II. J., Ill charge of Plant Breeding Lab- oratory, Div. of Veg. Phys. and Path., Dept.

of Agri<'., W^ashington, D. C. (Citrus. Miir-

raya and oilier citrous genera.) *Wellhouse, Col. Fred, Fruit-grower, Fair- mount, Kans. {Kansas.) *Wheeler, H. J., Dir. K. I. Exp. Sta., Kingston,

R. I. (Lime.) *Whitney, JIieton, C'hief, Div. of Soils, Dept. of

Agric, Washington, 1). C. (Irrigation. iSoils.) *Whitten, Prof. J. C, Horticulturist, Mo. Exp.

Sta., Columbia, Mo. (Missonri.) *Whyte, R. B., Amateur, Ottawa, Out. (Henicro-

callis. L^ilium.) *WlCKSON, Edward J., Prof, of Agricultural Prac- tice, IJniv. of Calif., and Florticulturist, Calif.

Exp. Sta., Berkeley, Calif. (Almond, Apricot,

Cherry, Crape, L^enion, Lime, etc., in Californiii .) *W00LS0N, C4. C, Nurseryman, specialist in hardy

herbaceous perennials, Passaic, N. J. (Mer-

tensia. Mas read numerous jimofs.) *Wortman, S. W., Mushroom-grower, Iseliri, N. J.

(Muslirooin. ) *WiEGAND, K. M., Instructor in Botany, Cornell

Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Coreojisis. Cordyline.

Cyperiis. Driinriia . Junciis. Lysimacliia.

Miisa. Myosotis ] . *Wymax, a. p.. Asst. to Olmsted Bros., Landscape

Architects, Brookline, !Mass. (Dirca, E]iigiea,

E.xochorda , Halesia, Hy)ierienin, Eerria. l.iqnid-

amtar, and oilier hardy trees and shrubs. Also

Lathyriis. Lupinua.)

COLLABORATORS

//. PARTIAL LIST OF

THOSE iniO HAVE AXI) ly OTHER

ASSISTED BY READING EROOF,

iiA rs.

Andrews, D, JI., Nurseryman, Boulder, Colo.

{XdtiveKcstcni pla)its,espcfialli/ new liardy cacti.) Ball, C. D., Wholesale florist, Holmesburg, Phila- delphia, Pa. {Ferns. Foliage Plants. Palms.) Barker, Michael, Editor "American Florist,"

Chicago, 111. (Many suggestions.) Bassett & Son, Wm. F., Nurserymen, Hammon-

ton, N. J. (Natire plants, as Hihisciis. ) Bergek & Co., H. H., New York, N. Y. (.lapa-

nese and Californian plants .) Bessey, Chas. E., Prof, of Botany, Univ. of Neb.,

Lincoln, NeVi. [Natire plants, particularly

grasses.) Bet.<3CHER Bros., Florists, nurserymen and seeds- men, Canal Dover, Ohio. {Gladiolus.) Blanc, A., Seedsman and plantsman, Philadel- phia, Pa. (Cacti. Norelties.) Boardjian, S. L., See. Maine Hort. Soc, Augusta,

Me. (Maine.) Braokett, CoI.Ct. B., Pomologist, Dept. of Agric,

Washington, D. C. (Hicoria. Hiel.-ory. .Juglans.) Braunton, Ernest, Gardener, Los Angeles, Calif.

(Many valuaNe notes on plants cult. in. Calif.) Breck & Sons, Joseph, Seedsmen, Boston, Mass.

(Portrait of Josepit Bred;.) BuDD, Prof. J. L., Horticultural author, Ames,

Iowa. {Iowa. luiporlnnt fruits.) Budlong Bros., Pickle-makers, Providence, K. I.

(Cucumher. Martynia .) BuRBANK, Luther, Hybridist, Santa Kosa, Calif.

(Gladiolus.) Bush & Sons & Meissner, Bushberg, Mo.

(Grapes.) Caldwell, Geo. C, Prof, of Agric. Cliemistry,

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. \ Fertility. Fcrti-

li'ers. Lime. ) Clark, Miss Josephine A., Asst. Librarian, Dept.

of Agric, Washington, D. C. (luformaliou as

to species after tiie date of Index Keu-ensis.) Clinton, L. A., Asst. Agriculturist, Cornell Exp.

Sta., Ithaca, N. Y. (Lime.) Coates, Leonard, Nil pa City, Calif. (Fruit Cul- ture in California . ) CoviLLE, Frederick v., Botanist, Dept. of Agric,

Washington, D. C. {,/uniperus. Suggestions in,

various matters.) Cranefield, Fred, ,\sst. Horticulturist, Wis. Exp.

Sta., Madison, Wis. (Irrigation .) Dailledouze Bros., \Vholesale florists, Flatbush,

Brooklyn, N. Y. ( Mignrmdle. ) Dandridgk, Mrs. Danske, Auiateur, Sliepherds-

town, W. A'a. (Hardy plants.) Davenport, Geo. E., Botanist, specialist iu ferns,

Medford, Mass. (Several genera of ferns.)

Day, Miss Mary A., Librarian, Ciray Herbarium

of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (Rare

books . ) Devron, Dr. G., Amateur in bamboos, New Or- leans, La. (Batnlxni.) Dock, Miss M. L., Harrisburg, Pa. (Bartram.) Downer's Sons, J. S., Fairport, Ky. (Kentucky .) Dreer, II. A. (Inc.), Seedsmen and plantsmen,

Philadelphia, Pa. (Many and varied services,

especially in. aepiatics, ferns, foliage plants anil

rare annuals.) Elliott, J. Wilkinson, Landscape architect,

Pittsburg, Pa. (Kockia, and some herbaceous

perennieds. ) EllwaN(3ER & Barry, Nurserymen, Rochester,

N. Y. (Hardy ]>lanls. ) Fisher, Jabez, Fruit- grower, Fitchburg, Mass.

(Massaclrusctls. ) Ganonq, W. F., Prof, of Botany, Smith College,

Northampton, Mass. (Cacti.) Goodman, L. A., Fruit-grower, Westport, Mo.

(Missouri. ) Halliday Bros., Florists, Baltimore, JId.

(A'alca. Comellia.) PIarris, J. S., Fruit-grower, La Crescent, Minn.

(Minnesota . ) Heiss, J. B., Florist, Dayton, Ohio. (Palms.) Hctt, R. L., Prof, of Horticulture, Ont. Agric.

College, Guelph, Ont. (Kale. Kohlrabi.) Jones, Rev. C. J. K., Los Angeles, Calif.

( Various Californian plants.) Jordan, Dr. W. H., Dir., N. Y'. Exp.

Geneva, N. Y'. (Fertility. Fertilisers.) Kedzie, Dr. R. C, Prof, of Chemistry,

Agric. College, Agricultural College,

(Fertility. Fertili-ers. Lime.) ■■■King, F. H., Prof, of Agricultural Physics, Madi- son, AYis. ( Irrigation, Mulching, etc.) Latham, A. W., Secretary Minn. Hort. Soc,

Minneapolis, Minn. (Minnesota .) LuPTON, J. M., Market-gardener, Gregoi^y, L. I.

( Cahhage. ) Mackenzie, R. R., Manager bulh deiiartment,

J. M. Thorburn & Co., New York, N. Y.

(Many important bulbs.) iMakepeace, a. D., Cranberry-grower, West Barn- stable, Mass. (Cranberry.) Manda, W. a.. Nurseryman, South Orange, N. J.

{ Orchid pictures. ) Manning, Jacoii W., Nurseryman, Reading, Mass.

( Dried specimens of lierbaceous perennial

j'lants.) Manning, Robert, Sec .Mass. Hort. Soc, Boston,

Mass. (Biographical sketches. Horticulture.)

Sta.

Mich. Midi.

COLLABORATORS xi

May, John N., Florist, Summit, X. .1. (Florisl.'i' Seavey, Mrs. Fannie Copley, Landscape

J'YoH'o-.s. ) gardener, Bri^jliton, III. (Liin<lsra]/c Gardcii-

Meehan, Tiics., Nurseryman, Germantowii, Pa. '".'/■)

{The article " Horliciil lure.") Shady Hill Nursery Co., Boston, JIass. (Hcr-

Miller, E. S., Speeialist in bulbs, Floral Park, baeeoit.'i jierejiiu<i!.-i.)

L.I. {Many articles 0)1 Inilhs.) Shaw, Thos., Prof, of Affric, I'niv. of Minn.,

MuDGE, W. S., Hartland, N. Y. {.Vi(slniicIoii.) Jlinneapolis, .Minn. { .][eilieaii<i. Mrtilotn.-,-.)

Nanz & Neuner, Florists and seedsmen, Louis- Slay^maker, A. "\V., Fruit-grower, Camden, Del.

ville, Ky. {Kcniiiekij.) {Dcldifare.)

Nash. Geo. Y., Asst. N. Y. Bot. Garden, Bronx Smith, Irving C, Market-gardener, Green Bay,

Park, N. Y'. {Genera of yrasses.) Wis. {KohInil)i .)

Parsons, Samuel, Nurserym.an, Flashing, L. I. Stanton, Geo., Ciinseng specialist. Summit,

{'llic artieic " Hortieiillurc.") N. J. {Ginxemi .)

Pendergast, \V. ay., Pres. Minn. LTort. Soe., Storrs & Harrison, Nurserymen, Painesville,

Hutchinson, Minn. (Miiiiiesnta.) Ohio. {Varinuf: pla)ils.)

PlERSON, F. K., Nurseryman, Tarrytown-on- Su/.UKI & IlDA, Y^okoliama Nursery (!'o.. New York,

Hudson, N. Y. {Jlidbs.) N. Y. {Japanese plants.)

Powell, Geo. T., Pomologist, Ghent, N. Y. Todd, Frederick G., Landscape architect, Mon-

{Important fruits.) treal, P. Q. {Hanli/ In cs and slirnhs. ]

Ragan, W. H., Div. of Pomology, Dept. of Agric, Yick's Sons, James, Seedsmen, Rochester, N. Y.

Washington, D. C. {rmliaiia.) { Vai-ions jilanls.)

Rider, Prof. A. J., Trenton, N. •!. (Cranlierrij.) Ward, C. W., Wholesale florist and ca)'nation

Robinson, r>r. B. L., Curator (Iray Herbarium of specialist. Cottage Gardens, i,iueens, L. I.

Harvard Univ., C'ainbridge, Mass. [Varienis (Car)aition.)

articles mi natirc jilants.) Webb, Prof. AYeslev, Duver, Del. (Delan-are.)

Robinson, John, Author of "Ferns in their Homes Wedge, Clarence, Fruit-grower, Albert Lea,

and <~>nrs," Salem, IMass. {Sereral articles an Minn. [Miniiesnta.)

ferns.) Wheeler, C. F., Prof, fd' Botany, Midi, Agric

Sander & Co. (A. Dimmoek, Agent), New York, College, Agricultural College, ilich. (Ihjperi-

N. Y. {Becoit 'i)ni>(>rtations, partienlarhj orcltids cifin. Miniuhis.)

anil jnilne^.) White, J. J., (.'ranberry-grower. New Lisbon,

Schultheis, Anton, Nurseryman and llorist, (.'ol- N. J. {('ranhernj. )

lege Point, N. Y. ( iraadi/ }>lanls from An\-- Willard, S. D., Nurseryman, Geneva, N. Y.

tralia and the Cape, as Ei'iea.) [Important frnils, as Clierri/.)

SCOON, C. K., Fruit-grower, Cleneva, N. Y. Wittbold, CIecj., Florist, Chicago. 111. {I'alnts

{ Chcrrij. ) and fene^. )

ScETBNER, F. La.mpson, AgrostologisI , Dept. of Wright, Charles, Horticulturist, Seafoid, Del.

Agric, Washington, D. C. ( Gi mra .i/iinrises. ) (Delair<ire.)

Sears, Prof. F. C, School of Horticulture, Wolf- Yeomans, L. T., Fi-uit-grower, Walworth, N. Y.

ville. Nova Scotia. {Canada.) [Eraporation nj' fruits.)

ABBREVIATIONS

7. OF a km: UAL EXniESSIOX.S

<■"" cultivated, etc.

'''""' diameter.

Ji east.

./■' feet.

in iiiclies

-V iiortli.

^ soutli.

''■"/' triijiies, tropical.

/)■ west.

//. UF JiOTAMCAL TFllMS

." flower.

Jh flowers.

.rf'' flowered.

,/■/■ fruit.

'i height.

(/■ leaf.

Ift leaflet.

li-'s leaves.

si stem.

sts stems.

syii synonym.

riir variety.

III. OF BOOKS AXTi rERIODICALS

To aid the student in the verification of the work, and to introduce liini to the literature of the various subjects, citations are made to the por- traits of plants in the leading periodicals to which the American is most likely to have access. These references to pictures have been verified as far as possible, both in the MS. and in tlie proof. A uniform method of citation is much to be de- sired, but is extremely difficult, because periodi- cals rarely agree in methods. With great reluc- tance it was decided to omit the year in most cases, because of the pressure for space, but the student who lacks access to the original volumes may generally ascertain the year by consulting the bibliographical notes below.

An arliitrary ami brief method of citation has been chosen. At the outset it seemed best to indi- cate wliethei' the cited ])icture is colored or not. This accounts for the two ways of citing certain publications containing both kinds of pictures, as The Garden, Revue Horticole, and Gartenfloi'a.

The figures given below explain the method of citation, and incideutally give sonni hints as to the imrnber of volumes to date, and of the uundter of pages or plates in one of the latest volumes.

A few works of the greatest importance are mentioned elsewhere by way <if arknowledgraent (p. XV). The standard works on tlie bibliography of botany are Pritzel's Thesaurus and Jackson's <Tiiide to tlie Literature of Botany; also, .Taekson's Catalogue of tlie Library of the Ivoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

AA-". . . . Tlic Anicrican Flcrisl. ('Iiicago. A trade jiaper founded August 15. ISS."). Tlie vol- uiiie-s end witli -luly. iMaliy pictures re- peated in"Gng." { 14 : l.j2i^vol. and page.)

A.t-T. . . . -Vini-riean Gardenin.e. New York. Represents

1 4 extinct 111 irticultural iK^riodicais, iiichul-

inii: Till' American liardiai ( 1SKS-18H0).

Founded IST'JCf) (20:SyG=vol. and page. )

B Tlic Botanist. Edited by Mannd. No yrars

I'M title pages. Founded ls;;ii. s vols., .".n cdnri'd i.latr-i in ea(di Vid. iS:4lia = vul. and cul. phitc. ) C'uiiiulati\-e index.

B.B. . . . Britton & Brown. An ilbistrated Flora nf llie Nertlierii V . S., ete. New Yeik. lyyiJ-ISlW. (.■l:.")BS=vul. and |Mge.)

B.F. . . . See F.

B.H. . . .La Bel(,'ii|uc Ilorti.'nl... r;),,.nt. :l.^ vols. (IS.'jl-lss.-,.)

B.M. . . . Curtis' Botanical ^fati-azine. London. Founded 1787. Tlie oldest current peri- odical devoted to garden plants. The vol. for 1899 is v.)l. 12."i of the whole work. Index to first 107 volumes by E. Toulis. London. (7G9U=col. plate.)

B.R. . . . Botanical Register (18].">-1847). Vols. l-U edited by Edwards: vols. l.",-:;:i l,y Lind- ley. In vols. l-2:i the plates are num- bered troin 1-2014. In vols. 24-.3:i they are iiuinliered independently in each vol. There are dS8 plates in vols. 24-3.3. "An Appendix to the First Twenty-three Vol- umes" (bound separately or with tlie 2.1th vol.) contains an index to the first 23 vols. An index to vols. 24-.31 may be fouml in vol. 31. 1 3.3 : 7d^=vol. and c<"d. plate. 1

D Dana. T-Tow to Know tlie Wild Flowers.

New York. 1893. (298=page.)

Em. . . . Emerson. C. B. Trees ami Shrubs of Mas- sachusetts. Boston. 2 Vols. 149 plates.

F The Florist. London. 1840-1884. (1884:

192^year and page pp. col. plate. ) Editors and title ]aiges changed many times. Known as the Florist, Florist's .Journal and Florist and PomoloLcist. Sometimes improperly called British Florist.

F.C. . . . Floral Cabinet. Knowles ct Westcott. Lon- don. 1837-1840. (3:1,37 vol. ami eol. plate).

(,xiii)

XIV

ABBREVIATIONS

F.E.

F.J.

F.M.

F.P. F.R.

F. S.

G.C.

G. F. G.M.

Gn. .

Gug.

Gt.

G.W.P. HBK.

I.H. .

J.H.

The Florists' Exchange. New York. A trade paper, whose pictures sometimes are repeated in "A.G." Founded Dec. 8, 1888. (ll:1298=voI. and page.)

. See P.

. Floral Magazine. London. Series I. 1801- 1871, 8vo. Series II. 1872-1881, 4to. (1881:450=year and col. plate.)

. See F.

. Florists' Review. Chicago. A trade paper. Vol, 1, Dec. 2, 1897, to May 26, 1898. Two vols, a year. (4:660=vol. and page.)

. Flore des Serres. Ghent. (1845-1880.) Inconsistent in numbering, but the plate numbers are always found on the plate itself or on the page opposite. Valuable but perplexing indexes in vols. 15 and 19. (23:2481=vol. and col. plate.)

. The Gardeners' Chronicle. London. Se- ries I. (1841-1873) is cited by year and page. Series II. or "New Series" (1874- 1886), is cited thus: II. 26:824=series, volume and page. Series III. is cited thus: III. 26:416. Two vols, a year, be- ginning 1874. A select index is scattered through 1879 and 1880. Consult II. 12:viii (1879), and similar places in sub- sequent vols.

. Garden and Forest. New York. 1888-1897. (10: 518= vol. and page.)

. Gardeners' Magazine. London. Ed. by Shirley Hibberd. Founded 1860. Vols. 31-42 are cited. (42:872^vol. and page.) The Garden. London. Founded 1871. Two vols, a year. (56:1254^vol. and col. plate. 56, p. 458=vol. and page contain- ing black figure.) An Index of the first 20 vols, was separately published. Com- plete Index of Colored Plates to end of 1888 in vol. 54, p. 334.

. Gardening. Chicago. Founded Sept. 15, 1892. Vols, end Sept. 1. (7:38i=vol. and page.)

. Gartenflora. Berlin. Founded 1852. (Gt. 48: 1470= vol. and col. plate. Gt. 48, p. 670^vol. and page containing black figure.)

. Goodale's Wild Flowers of America. Bos- ton, 1886. (50=col. plate.)

. Htimboldt, Bonpland & Kunth. Nova Genera et Species, etc. Paris. 1815-25. 7 vols. Folio.

. L'lllustrationHorticole. Ghent. (1854-1896.) (43:72=vol. and col. plate.) The volumes were numbered continuously, but there were 6 series. Series I. = 1854-63. Se- ries II. =1864-69. Series III. =1870-80. Series IV. = 1881-86. Series V. = 1887- 93. Series VI. =1894-96. The plates were numbered continuously in the first 16 vols, from 1 to 614: in vols. 17-33 they run from 1 to 619: in series V. from 1 to 190: in Series VI. they begin anew with each vol. Valuable indexes in vols. 10 and 20. Series V. in 4to,the rest 8vo.

. Journal of Horticulture. London. Founded in 1848 as The Cottage Gardener. Series III. only is cited, beginning 1880. (III. 39:504:=series, vol., jjage.)

K.W. L. .

L.B.C.

LiTid. Lowe . M. . . M.D.G Mn. .

N. . . P.F.G. P.G. . P.M. .

R. . . E.B. .

R.H.

. See F. C.

. In vol. 1 of this work, sometimes means

Lindenia, sometimes Lowe's Beautiful

Leaved Plants. See "Lind." and "Lowe." . The Botanical Cabinet. Loddiges. 1817-

33. 100 plates in each vol. Complete

index in last vol. (20:2D00=vo]. and col.

plate.) . Lindenia, Ghent. Founded 1885. Polio.

Devoted to orchids. . Beautiful Leaved Plants. E. J. Lowe and

Howard. London. 1864. (60=col. plate./

. A. B. Freeman-Mitford. The Bamboo Gar- den. London. 1896. (224=page.)

. Moller's Deutsche Giirtner-Zeitung. Erfurt. Founded 1886. ( 1897 :425=year and page.)

. Meehan's Monthly. Germantown, Phila- delphia. Founded 1891. (9:192 = vol. and page opposite col. plate.)

. :Ticholson. Dictionary of Gardening. Vols. 1^ (1884-1887). Vol. 5 in preparation.

. Lindley & Paxton. Flower Garden. Lon- don. 1851-53. 3 vols. 4to.

. Popular Gardening. Buffalo. 1885-90. (5:270=vol. and page.)

. Paxton's Magazine of Botanj^. London. 1834^9. (16:376 = vol. and page oppo- site col. plate.) Vol. 15 has index of first 15 vols.

. Reichenbachia. Ed. by Fred. Sander. Lon- don. Founded 1886. Folio.

. Revue de 1' Horticulture Beige et EtrangJre Ghent. Founded 1875? (23:288=vol. and page opposite col. plate. ) In the first vol. of the Cyclopedia "R.B." sometimes means Belgique Horticole, but the confusion is corrected in later vols., where Belgique Horticole is abbreviated to "B.H."

. Revue Horticole. Dates from 1826, but is now considered to have been founded in 1829. ( 1899 :.596=y ear and page opposite col. plate. 1899, p. 596=year and page opposite black figure. )

. Schneider. The Book of Choice Ferns. London. In 3 vols. Vol. 1, 1892. Vol. 2, 1893.

S.B.F.G.

S.M.

S.S.

Sweet British Flower Garden. London. Series I., 1823-29, 3 vols. Series II.. 1831-38, 4 vols.

S.H. . . . Semaine Horticole. Ghent. Founded 1897. (3:548=year and page.)

.Semaine Horticole. Erroneously